Army Group Liguria
Army Group Liguria (Heeresgruppen Ligurien, or LXXXXVII Army) was an army group formed for the National Republican Army (Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, or ENR). The ENR was the national army of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI). Formation of this RSI army started in 1943 and the army was disbanded in 1945. Army Group Liguria included several German units and its Italian units were sometimes transferred to German formations.
On 16 October 1943, the Rastenburg Protocol was signed with Nazi Germany and the RSI was allowed to raise four division-sized military formations. The four divisions—1st Italian "Italia" Infantry Division, 2nd Italian "Littorio" Infantry Division, 3rd Italian "San Marco" Marine Division, and 4th Italian "Monte Rosa" Alpine Division—were to ultimately total 52,000 men.
In July 1944, the first of these divisions completed training and was sent to the front. Like the smaller RSI units—the Black Brigades and the Decima Flottiglia MAS—the newly formed RSI divisions generally participated in anti-partisan activities. While there were exceptions, these divisions saw limited front line action.
As the remaining divisions completed training, they were combined with German units and formed into Army Group Liguria.The RSI Minister of Defense, Rodolfo Graziani, commanded all Army forces of the RSI.
Order of battle
- Order of Battle for the LXXXXVII "Liguria" Army - 30 April 1945
On 1 May 1945, Graziani ordered the RSI forces under his command to lay down their arms and Army Group Liguria ceased to exist. German General Heinrich von Vietinghoff signed the unconditional instrument of surrender for all Axis forces in Italy and his surrender took effect on 2 May.