Armed Forces of Montenegro

Armed Forces of Montenegro
Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore
Founded 1879 (reconstituted 2006)
Service branches Montenegrin Ground Army
Montenegrin Navy
Montenegrin Air Force
Headquarters Podgorica
Leadership
President Milo Đukanović
Minister of Defence Predrag Bošković
Chief of the General Staff Brigadier general Dragutin Dakić
Manpower
Military age 18+
Conscription Abolished in 2006
Active personnel 1,950 (2017)
Reserve personnel 400
Expenditures
Budget 54 million Euro (2017)
Percent of GDP 1,65% (2015)
Industry
Domestic suppliers TARA group
Foreign suppliers  Austria
 Germany
 Russia
 Serbia
Related articles
History Battle of Martinići (1796)
Battle of Krusi (1796)
Battle of Lopate (1796)
Siege of Cattaro (1813)
Battle of Grahovac (1858)
Battle of Kolašin (1858)
Battle of Vučji Do (1876)
Battle of Fundina (1876)
Battles for Plav and Gusinje (1879)
First Balkan War (1912-1913)
Siege of Shkoder ( 1913)
Second Balkan War (1913–1913)
First World War (1914-1918)
Christmas Uprising (1919)
Second World War
Ranks Military ranks of Montenegro

The Armed Forces of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore) consists of an army, navy and air force. There has been no conscription in Montenegro; the military is a fully professional standing army.

The military currently maintains a force of 1,950 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

In June 2017 Montenegro joined NATO as 29th member.

Command

Leadership

Ministry of Defense

Bases

Air Bases

Golubovci Airbase (Podgorica)

Bar Naval base (Bar)

"Pero Ćetković" base (Bar)

Pristan base (Herceg Novi)

Army Bases

Army base "Milovan Šaranović" (Danilovgrad)

Army base "13 jul", Nikšić (Nikšić)

Army base "V. K. Volođa" (Pljevlja)

Army base "Breza" (Kolašin)

Army base "Masline" (Podgorica) - Planned for adaptation

Army base "Nova lokacija" (Andrijevica) - Planned from 2020.year

Units and structure

  • General Staff - Podgorica[2]
  • Infantry Battalion
    • 1st Infantry Company
    • 2nd Infantry Company
    • 3rd Infantry (Mountain) Company
    • 4th Infantry Company
    • Fire Support Company
    • Engineer Company
    • Signal Platoon
    • NBC Defence Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Air Force
    • Helicopter Squadron
    • Support Company
    • Air Surveillance & Reporting Center, in Golubovci, reports to NATO's Integrated Air Defense System CAOC Torrejón in Spain
    • Signal Platoon
    • 1st Air-Defense Platoon
    • 2nd Air-Defense Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Navy
    • Patrol Boat 33
    • Patrol Boat 34
    • Coastal Surveillance Company
    • Training Ship "Jadran"
    • Auxiliary Boats Detachment
    • Marine Detachment
    • Support Company
  • Logistic Battalion
  • Training Center
  • Honorary Guard Company
  • Intelligence-Reconnaissance Company
  • Military Police Company
  • Signal Company

Ranks and insignia

The Military before 1918

After military successes in the wars 1876-1878 during which the Principality of Montenegro was enlarged by a large territory, from the Tara River in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the south (liberated towns Podgorica, Nikšić, Kolašin, Andrijevica, Bar and Ulcinj), reorganization in Montenegrin army was conducted in 1880. Each kapetanija (municipality) formed its reserve battalion. There were 42 battalions in total. Since 1881, regular military exercises were conducted.

Supreme Commander of the Montenegrin army was the monarch, Prince / King Nikola I. Operational command, organization and financial support of the Montenegrin army was entrusted to the Ministry of Defence, the department of the Government of the Principality / Kingdom of Montenegro.

General Staff of the Montenegrin army was part of the Ministry of Defence.

In 1882 first 14 Montenegrins were sent to officer schools abroad, particularly in Italy and Russia. In 1886, 10 of them completed their education and they become first trained officers in Montenegrin warrior history. These Montenegrin officers held courses in Podgorica, Nikšić and Cetinje.

In September 1895, the first permanent Infantry NCO school in Podgorica was opened, and the first NCOs got desečar rank. At the end of 1896, artillery officer school in Cetinje was established - the first Montenegrin officer school.

Formations

In 1906 Montenegrin army received the first systematized regulations, and the Law on Organization of the Army was adopted in 1910. Infantry and artillery, were established, followed by two specialized branches (reconnaissance and pioneering), and additional branches (medics, military workshop, the military court staff, gendarmerie and logistics).

In 1913 the Montenegrin gendarmerie become a special Military Police unit.

Since the establishment of the internal Montenegrin telecommunications system in 1869, vital for the flow of military-defense information, it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of the military.

Until 1912, the territory of the Kingdom of Montenegro was divided into four divisional areas:

After wars 1912th-1913th established additional two divisions field:

By 1912, the Montenegrin Army had 11 brigade areas, 52 districts and 322 battalion troop areas. Divisions were composed of 2-3 Infantry Brigade.

Each divisional command had three artillery batteries. On the eve of the First Balkan War Kingdom of Montenegro lined up 55,000 soldiers.

After the establishment of the Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910, Montenegro was involved in three wars with the first one being the First Balkan War, in alliance with Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire. The Second Balkan War was fought between Montenegro, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire against Bulgaria, with Bulgaria consequently losing significant territory in the north, Thrace, and Macedonia.

The Military of Montenegro before 1918, was much larger than today's military. During World War I, Montenegro mobilised 50,000 troops. The Commander-in-Chief was King Nikola I of Montenegro, while the General of Staff was Božidar Janković. Units included:

  • Pljevlja Division

The Pljevlja Division was commanded by brigadier Luka Gojnić. The division was made up of 10 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and patrolled the area east from Pljevlja.

  • Herzegovina Detachment

The Herzegovina Detachment was commanded by Serdar (Count) Janko Vukotić. The detachment was made up of 15 battalions. It had around 15,000 soldiers, and patrolled the border with Herzegovina.

  • Lovćen Detachment

The Lovćen Detachment was commanded by divizijar Mitar Martinović. The detachment was made up of 18 battalions. It had around 8,000 soldiers, and patrolled the areas of Lovćen and Sutorman.

  • Old Serbia' Detachment

The 'Old Serbia' Detachment was commanded by brigadier Radomir Vešović. The detachment was made up of 13 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and secured the Albanian border.

Uniforms

Most soldiers of the Montenegrin army had no uniforms. At mobilization, the soldiers were issued a rifle and a badge to put in the cap. Both soldiers and officers in the reserve wore national costume. The badges in the caps had different designs depending on the rank of the wearer.

Ranks and Badges

All Montenegrins between 18 and 62 years were conscripts. Recruitment was done three times a year, and the recruits are in peacetime had to have at least 25 years.

  • Officer ranks were: potporučnik, poručnik, kapetan, komandir, brigadir, divizijar
  • NCO ranks were: desečar, donarednik, narednik
  • Ceremonial ranks were: serdar, vojvoda

Peacekeeping operations

Montenegro participates in peace operations under the NATO and UN auspices as military troops and observers. Minister of Defense said that 85 soldiers are trained for international missions.[3] Montenegrin soldiers are trained by the German Bundeswehr.[4]

Montenegro sent 45 troops and medical personnel to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan, and continues contributing in new Resolute Support Mission mission.[5][6]

Montenegro also participates in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, UNMIL, Cyprus, UNFICYP as military observers and Somalia, EU-NAVFOR.

Current Mission Organization Country Nr. of personnel
RS NATO Afghanistan 25 Members (Military troops and medical team)
UNMIL UN Liberia Officers as military observers
UNFICYP UN Cyprus Officers as military observers
EU-NAVFOR EU Somalia 8 Members (APVD team)[7]
KFOR NATO Kosovo 40 Members (Military troops and medical team)

Equipment

Ground Army

Weapon Country Manufactured Cartridge Quantity Pictures Notes
Pistols
Glock 17[8]  Austria 9×19mm Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military
Zastava CZ 99  Yugoslavia/ Serbia 9×19mm Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military
Tara TM9  Montenegro 9×19mm Testing
Assault Rifles
Zastava M59/66  Yugoslavia 7.62×39mm Ceremonial rifle
G36  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO Standard rifle of Montenegrin Military
Steyr AUG  Austria 5.56×45mm NATO Used by Special Forces
Heckler & Koch HK416  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO Used by Special Forces
Tara TM4  Montenegro 5.56×45mm NATO Testing
Zastava M70/M70A  Yugoslavia/ Serbia 7.62×39mm In reserve
Submachine guns
H&K MP5  Germany 9×19mm Parabellum Used by Special Forces
Sniper Rifles
Heckler & Koch PSG1  Germany 7.62×51mm NATO In service
Zastava M93 Black Arrow  FR Yugoslavia/ Serbia 12.7×108mm In service
Zastava M76  Yugoslavia/ Serbia 7.92×57mm In reserve
Zastava M91  FR Yugoslavia/ Serbia 7.62×54mmR In reserve
Machine Guns
Zastava M84  Yugoslavia/ Serbia 7.62×54mmR In service
Zastava M72  Yugoslavia/ Serbia 7.62×39mm In reserve
Grenade launcher
BGA 30mm  Serbia 30mm In service
Heckler & Koch AG36  Germany 40mm In service
Anti-tank
M79 "Osa"  Yugoslavia 90mm rocket In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
M80 "Zolja"  Yugoslavia 64mm rocket In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
9M14 Malyutka  Soviet Union/ Yugoslavia 64mm rocket In service
Mortar
M57 mortar  Yugoslavia 60mm In service
M69 mortar  Yugoslavia 82mm 44 14 active,(30 in reserve)
M74/M75 mortar  Yugoslavia 120mm 32 In service
Howitzer
D-30J 122 mm  Soviet Union 122 mm 12 In service
MLRS
M-94 Plamen-S  Yugoslavia 128 mm 18 In service
Armoured personnel carrier
BOV VP М86  Yugoslavia 6 In service
Achleitner RCV Survivor  Austria/ Germany 4 In service, planned to buy another 26 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a MAN truck chassis.
LAPV Enok  Germany (0)6 Upcoming donation from Bundeswehr
Humvee  United States (0)20 Upcoming donation from USA
Otokar Cobra  Turkey 1 Nuclear, Biological,Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.
Tank destroyer
BOV 1 POLO M-83  Yugoslavia 9 In service, armed with 6 AT-3 missiles
Off-road utility vehicle
Achleitner MMV Survivor  Austria/ Japan 16 In service, planned to buy another 20 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a Toyota SUV chassis.
Toyota Hilux  Japan In service
Toyota Land Cruiser  Japan In service, Ambulance vehicle.
Puch 300GD
Puch 290D
[9]
 Germany/ Austria In service
Mercedes-Benz G-Class[9]  Germany In service
Pinzgauer 710  Austria In service
Lada Niva 1.5
Lada Niva 1.7
 Russia In service
Trucks
TAM 110
TAM 130
TAM 150
 Yugoslavia/ Slovenia In service
FAP 2026
FAP 2226
FAP 1314
 Yugoslavia/ Serbia In service
Iveco Trakker  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Iveco EuroCargo  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Logistics vehicles
IMK TG-110
IMK TG-140
IMK TG-160
IMK TG-190
IMK TG-220
 Yugoslavia Tracked bulldozer
IMK ULT-160  Yugoslavia Wheeled bulldozer
CAT 434F  United States Backhoe loader
Mercedes-Benz Unimog  Germany Multi-purpose utility vehicle
Class Country Manufactured Variants Quantity Pictures Notes
Frigate
Kotor class frigate  Yugoslavia - P-33 Kotor
- P-34 Novi Sad
1
1
2 in active service
Fast attack craft
Končar class fast attack craft  Yugoslavia - RTOP-405 Jordan Nikolov Orce
- RTOP-406 Ante Banina
1
1
Under reconstruction. The ship RTOP-405 was to be completed in 2018.
Transport and support
PO class  Yugoslavia - PO91 1 1 in reserve
Tugboats
Salvage tug  Yugoslavia - PR-41 (Orada)
- LR-77
1
1
2 in active service
Sailing ship
Jadran  Germany Used as a training ship 1 1 in active service
Motor sailboat  Yugoslavia - Bojana
- Milena
1
1
2 in active service
Motorboat
Diving boat  Yugoslavia -Ronilačka baraksa 81
-Ronilačka barkasa 85
1
1
2 in active service
Motor boat Polycat  Netherlands 1 1 in active service
Motor boat  Yugoslavia - ČM 33 1 1 in active service
Inflatable boat
Valiant 620PT  United Kingdom Used by Marine Platoon 2 2 in active service
Motor Yacht
Jadranka  Yugoslavia VIP Yacht 1 Offered for sale
Floating Crane
Floating Crane  Yugoslavia LDI 18 1 1 in active service

Airforce

Aircraft Country Manufactured Variant Quantity Pictures Notes
Armed Advanced Jet Trainer
Soko G-4 Super Galeb  Yugoslavia G-4 / N-62 4 Offered for sale
Trainer Aircraft
Utva 75  Yugoslavia Utva 75 / V-53 3 Offered for sale
Aerial firefighting
Air Tractor AT-802  United States AT-802A 3 3 Active
PZL-Mielec M-18 Dromader  Poland 2 1 Active
Utility transport
Learjet 45  United States VIP Transport 1 Government aircraft
Transport and Utility Helicopters
SOKO Gazelle  France /  United Kingdom/

 Yugoslavia

HO-42/45
HI-42 Hera
HN-45 Gama
13 Produced under license in Yugoslavia.
Augusta-Bell AB412  United States
/  United Kingdom /  Italy
AB412 1 Government aircraft
Augusta-Bell AB212  United States
/  United Kingdom /  Italy
AB212 1 Government aircraft
Augusta-Bell AB206  United States
/  United Kingdom /  Italy
AB206 1 Government aircraft
Bell 412EP  United States
 Canada
412EP 1[10][11] Medical evacuation, search and rescue, aerial firefighting, patrol.
Bell 412EPI  United States
 Canada
412EPI 2 on order[10][11] Medical evacuation, search and rescue, aerial firefighting, patrol.
Expected delivery Q4 2018.
Mil Mi-8  Soviet Union Mi-8T/HT-40 1 Not in use. Planned to buy three new medium transport helicopters Bell 412 in 2018.
Air Defence
9K32 Strela-2M  Soviet Union/ Yugoslavia Portable low-altitude SAM Planned to buy new MANPADS.
Bofors 40 mm  Sweden Autocannon 40mm L/70,
works with GIRAFFE Radar
Planned for modernization
GIRAFFE Radar  Sweden Early warning radar, works
with Bofors 40mm L/70
Planned for modernization

See also

References

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