Application for employment
An application for employment is an standard business document which is prepared with questions deemed relevant by an employer in order for the employer to determine the best candidate to be given the responsibility of fulfilling the work needs of the company. Most companies provide such forms to anyone upon request at which point it becomes the responsibility of the applicant to complete the form and returning it to the employer at will for consideration. The completed and returned document notifies the company of the applicants availability and desire to be employed and their qualifications and background so a determination can be made as to which candidate should be hired.
From the employer's perspective, the application serves a number of purposes. These vary depending on the nature of the job and the preferences of the person responsible for hiring, as "each organization should have an application form that reflects its own environment". At a minimum, an application usually requires the applicant to provide information sufficient to demonstrate that he or she is legally permitted to be employed. The typical application also requires the applicant to provide information regarding relevant skills, education, and experience (previous employment or volunteer work). The application itself is a minor test of the applicant's literacy, penmanship, and communication skills - a careless job applicant might disqualify themselves with a poorly filled-out application.
The application may also require the applicant to disclose any criminal record, and to provide information sufficient to enable the employer to conduct an appropriate background check. For a business that employs workers on a part-time basis, the application may inquire as to the applicant's specific times and days of availability, and preferences in this regard. It is important to note, however, that an employer may be prohibited from asking applicants about characteristics that are not relevant to the job, such as their political view or sexual orientation.
For white collar jobs, particularly those requiring communication skills, the employer will typically require applicants to accompany the form with a cover letter and a résumé. However, even employers who accept a cover letter and résumé will frequently also require the applicant to complete a form application, as the other documents may neglect to mention details of importance to the employers. In some instances, an application is effectively used to dissuade "walk-in" applicants, serving as a barrier between the applicant and a job interview with the person with the authority to hire.
For many businesses, applications for employment can be filled out online, and do not have to be submitted in person. However, it is still recommended that applicants bring a printed copy of their application to an interview.
Application blanks are the second most common hiring instrument next to personal interviews. Companies will occasionally use two types of application blanks, short and long. They both help companies with initial screening and the longer form can be used for other purposes as well. The answers that applicants choose to submit are helpful to the company because they can become an interview question for that applicant at a future date.
Standardization and Regulation
The employment application is not a standardized form so every company may create its own as long as regulations set by the government are adhered.
Applications usually ask the applicant at the minimum for their name, phone number, and address. In addition, applications also ask for previous employment information, educational background, emergency contacts, references, as well as any special skills the applicant might have.
The three categories application fields are very useful for discovering are; physical characteristics, experience, and environmental factors.
If the company has a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) to ask regarding a physical condition, they may ask questions about it, for example:
- The job requires a lot of physical labor. Do you have any physical problems that may interfere with this job?
Experience requirements can be separated into two groups on an application, work experience and educational background. Educational background is important to companies because by evaluating applicants' performance in school tells them what their personality is like as well as their intelligence. Work experience is important to companies because it will inform the company if the applicant meets their requirements. Companies are usually interested when applicants were unemployed and when/why the applicant left their previous job.
Companies are interested in the applicant's social environment because it can inform them of their personality, interests, and qualities. If they are extremely active within an organization, that may demonstrate their ability to communicate well with others. Being in management may demonstrate their leadership ability as well as their determination and so on.
Customs vary internationally when it comes to the inclusion or non-inclusion of a photograph of the applicant. In the English-speaking countries, notably the United States, this is not customary, and books or websites giving recommendations about how to design an application typically advise against it unless explicitly requested by the employer. In other countries, for instance Germany, the inclusion of a photograph of the applicant is still common, and many employers would consider an application incomplete without it.
In other non-English speaking European countries
In France, the 2006 Equal Opportunities Act requires companies with more than 50 employees to request an anonymous application (CV anonyme).
The job application is called Bewerbung in Germany and usually consists of three parts, such as the Anschreiben, the Lebenslauf and the Zeugnisse. Anschreiben is the German word for Cover Letter and aims at the same goal: convincing the employer to submit an invitation for a job interview. It is essential to work with the paper size DIN A4 and to stay with a length of one single page. The Anschreiben must be signed by hand and accompanied by a Lebenslauf, the Curriculum Vitae, and Zeugnisse as copies of relevant reference documents. The Lebenslauf is of an anti-chronological structure and should give information on work experience, education and professional training as well as on applicant's skills. In Germany, the Lebenslauf – respectively the Curriculum Vitae – usually includes a photograph called Bewerbungsfoto. Some employers, mainly governmental organisations, deliberately neglect the photograph to ensure a higher degree of objectivity in the course of assessment procedures. A length of two pages is to be aimed at when generating the Lebenslauf. In general, there are two options of submitting a job application in Germany: a job application folder (Bewerbungsmappe) or online (Onlinebewerbung). According to a study, the Onlinebewerbung was more favored in Germany than the Bewerbungsmappe by 2012. Presumably, this development will persist.
The CV is the most important part of the application and should not be longer than two to three pages. It is divided into three areas:
in chronological order
- Details of the person (Informazioni personali)
- School and education (Studi e Formazione)
in anti-chronological order
- additional capabilities (Altre conoscenze)
- Experience (Esperienze professionali). As graduate this section is omitted. Brief information on the application motivations may be mentioned here.
The application letter (La Lettera di accompagnamento al curriculum) will be taken relatively short, polite and formal in Italian applications. Long versions and extensively explained motivations, as well as photos and copies of certificates shall be presented only at the interview.
In Spain, the application consists of two parts: the cover letter (Carta de Candidatura) and the CV. No work or training certificates are attached. The cover letter should contain information on the motivation and drafted shortly. The CV should be structured in a tabular form. In Spain, multiple job interviews in the same company are common.
Usage by hackers
Job applications are known to be used by hackers to get employees to open attachments or links or connect USB sticks with malware. As companies typically have more financial resources than private individuals they are often a target of cyberextortion − so called ransomware. Ransomware such as "Petya" and "GoldenEye" were found to make use of job applications. Cyberespionage and attacks on critical infrastructure-related companies may be other reasons for such attacks and other than ransomware attacks may leave employees in the dark about their computer or network infection. The best method for mitigating such risks would be to have the HR department use a separate computer for job applications that is entirely disconnected from the internal network, on which no confidential or valuable information is stored and to which no portable devices such as USB sticks that may get connected to other computers of the company are connected.
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