Antigonid dynasty

Antigonids
Ἀντιγονίδαι
Antigonidai
306 BC–168 BC
Common languages Greek
Religion Ancient Greek religion
Government Monarchy
King  
 306 BC – 301 BC
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
 179 BC – 168 BC
Perseus of Macedon
Historical era Hellenistic
 Established
306 BC
 Defeat by Rome
168 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Macedonian Empire
Achaemenid Empire
Macedonia (Roman province)
Seleucid Empire

The Antigonid dynasty (/ænˈtɪɡnɪd/; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

History

Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC.[1]

Legacy

It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.[2]

Dynasty

The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were:

Antigonid Rulers
KingReign (BC)Consort(s)Comments
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Western Asian Antigonid kingdom)306–301 BCStratoniceOne of Alexander the Great's top generals; a major participant in the so-called "funeral games" following that king's death.
Demetrius I Poliorcetes (Macedon, Cicilia)294–287 BCPhila
Ptolemais
Deïdameia
Lanassa
?Eurydice
?Unnamed Illyrian woman
Phila was a daughter of Antipater, and ancestor of all subsequent Antigonid kings of Macedon, except Antigonus III Doson, through her son Antigonus II Gonatas. Antigonus III Doson was descended from the marriage of Demetrius and Ptolemais, who was a daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, the ephemeral King of Cyrene. Deïdameia was a daughter of Aeacides of Epirus and sister of Pyrrhus, she had one son, Alexander, by Demetrius. Demetrius had a further two sons, Demetrius the Thin and Corrhagus, the former by an unnamed Illyrian woman, the latter by a woman named Eurydice. Demetrius I Poliorcetes was the first Antigonid king of Macedon.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Macedon)276–239 BCPhilaSon of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus.
Demetrius the Fair (Cyrene)c. 250 BCOlympias of Larissa
Berenice II
Son of Demetrius I Poliorcetes and Ptolemaïs. Father of Antigonus III Doson and, apparently, Echecrates by Olympias.
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Macedon)239–229 BCStratonice of Macedon
Phthia of Epirus
Nicaea of Corinth
Chryseis
Son of Antigonus II and Phila. Stratonice of Macedon was a daughter of Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice. Phthia of Epirus was a daughter of Alexander II of Epirus and Olympias II of Epirus. Nicaea of Corinth was the widow of Demetrius' cousin, Alexander of Corinth. Chryseis was a former captive of Demetrius.[3] Only known son, Philip by Chryseis, also had a daughter by Stratonice of Macedon, Apama III.
Antigonus III Doson (Macedon)229–221 BCChryseisSon of Demetrius the Fair and Olympias of Larissa. Children unknown.

Philip V (Macedon)
221–179 BCPolycratia of ArgosSon of Demetrius II and Chryseis.[3] At least four children: Perseus of Macedon, Apame, Demetrius and Philippus.

Perseus (Macedon)
179–168 BC
(died 166 BC)
Laodice VThe last ruler of Macedon. Laodice V was a daughter of the Seleucid king, Seleucus IV Philopator. At least two sons, Philip and Alexander.

The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus.

Antigonid Dynasty Coins

See also

References

  1. J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-534-64603-4.
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Antigonid dynasty, 2008, O.Ed. But Perseus’ failure to deploy his full resources brought about his defeat (168) at Pydna in Macedonia and signaled the end of the dynasty."
  3. 1 2 Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; Syncellus Chronicle 535.19

Further reading

  • Adams, Winthrop Lindsay. 2010. "Alexander's Successors to 221 BC." In A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, 208–224. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Anson, Edward M. 2014. Alexander's Heirs: The Age of the Successors. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Edson, Charles F. 1934. "The Antigonids, Heracles, and Beroia." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45:213–246.
  • O'Neil, James L. 2003. "The Ethnic Origins of the Friends of the Antigonid Kings of Macedon." The Classical Quarterly 53, no. 2: 510-22. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3556219.
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