Anne Campbell (academic)

Anne C. Campbell (1951 – 10 February 2017[1][2][3]) was a British academic and author who specialised in evolutionary psychology. She was Professor of Psychology at Durham University.

Campbell’s research was largely concerned with differences between men and women in their aggressive behaviour. In the 1980s she studied female violence through ethnographic work with female gang members in New York.[4] She subsequently investigated social representations of aggression: the different explanations that men and women offer for their own aggression.[5][6] Campbell found that men are more likely than women to report that their aggression was a means to an end, while women are more likely to view it as a loss of control.[7][8]

Campbell's 1999 'Staying Alive' paper proposed an evolutionary explanation for sex differences in aggression. She argued that, while competition is important for women as well as men, women's competition takes less direct and risky forms than men's because mothers are more critical to the survival of their offspring than fathers are.[9] She went on to explore possible ways in which evolution might have shaped men's and women's psychology differently, in particular with regard to impulsivity[10][11][12] and fear.[13][14]

In total, Campbell authored and co-authored more than 80 scientific papers on a broad range of topics including: the role of oxytocin in human behaviour,[15][16] the measurement of life history strategies,[17][18] aggression in intimate partnerships,[19][20] the 'Dark Triad' of personality traits,[21][22] competition between women,[23][24] perceptions of one-night stands[25] areas of dispute and agreement between feminism and evolutionary psychology,[26][27][28] and even back pain.[29]

In 2010 Campbell made a memorable appearance in the Norwegian documentary series Hjernevask ('Brainwash'), in which she argued forcefully against the gender theories of Norwegian social scientists. She also argued, however, that the effects of humans' evolved psychology are dependent on social context.[30][31]

Published works

Journal articles

Books: authored

  • A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002; 2nd Edition, 2013)
  • Men, Women and Aggression (New York/London: Basic Books/Harpercollins, 1993)
  • The Girls in the Gang (New York & Oxford: Blackwell, 1986)

Books: edited

  • The Social Child (Hove: Psychology Press, 1998)


  1. Cross, Catharine (10 July 2017). "In Memoriam". Human Nature. Springer Nature. 28 (3): 364–365. doi:10.1007/s12110-017-9296-9. ISSN 1045-6767.
  2. Wright, Paula (8 March 2018). "International Women's Day". Twitter. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  3. "Anne Campbell". The Northern Echo (Obituary). 17 February 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  4. Campbell, A (1986). The Girls in the Gang. Blackwell. ISBN 0631149260.
  5. Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (1994-06-01). "Sex differences in aggression: Social representation and social roles". British Journal of Social Psychology. 33 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01021.x. ISSN 2044-8309.
  6. Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (1994-06-01). "Sex differences in aggression: Social representation and social roles". British Journal of Social Psychology. 33 (2): 233–240. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01021.x. ISSN 2044-8309.
  7. Astin, Sarah; Redston, Phillip; Campbell, Anne (2003-03-01). "Sex differences in social representations of aggression: Men justify, women excuse?". Aggressive Behavior. 29 (2): 128–133. doi:10.1002/ab.10044. ISSN 1098-2337.
  8. Driscoll, Helen; Zinkivskay, Ann; Evans, Kelly; Campbell, Anne (2006-05-01). "Gender differences in social representations of aggression: The phenomenological experience of differences in inhibitory control?". British Journal of Psychology. 97 (2): 139–153. doi:10.1348/000712605X63073. ISSN 2044-8295.
  9. Campbell, A (1999). "Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 22: 203–214. doi:10.1017/s0140525x99001818. PMID 11301523.
  10. Cross, Catharine P.; Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne (2011). "Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 137 (1): 97–130. doi:10.1037/a0021591. PMID 21219058.
  11. Campbell, Anne (2006-05-01). "Sex differences in direct aggression: What are the psychological mediators?". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (3): 237–264. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.09.002.
  12. Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2009-10-01). "Can 'risky' impulsivity explain sex differences in aggression?". Personality and Individual Differences. 47 (5): 402–406. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.006.
  13. Campbell, Anne; Coombes, Claire; David, Raluca; Opre, Adrian; Grayson, Lois; Muncer, Steven (2016-07-01). "Sex differences are not attenuated by a sex-invariant measure of fear: The situated fear questionnaire". Personality and Individual Differences. 97: 210–219. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.049.
  14. Campbell, Anne (2013-12-05). "The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1631): 20130078. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0078. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3826207. PMID 24167308.
  15. Campbell, Anne (2008-01-01). "Attachment, aggression and affiliation: The role of oxytocin in female social behavior". Biological Psychology. 77 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.001. PMID 17931766.
  16. Campbell, Anne (2010-04-30). "Oxytocin and Human Social Behavior". Personality and Social Psychology Review. 14 (3): 281–295. doi:10.1177/1088868310363594.
  17. Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2013-06-01). "Violence, Teenage Pregnancy, and Life History". Human Nature. 24 (2): 137–157. doi:10.1007/s12110-013-9163-2. ISSN 1045-6767.
  18. Copping, Lee T.; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven (2013-06-01). "Impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviour: A life history perspective". Personality and Individual Differences. 54 (8): 908–912. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.01.003.
  19. Davidovic, Anna; Bell, Kurtis; Ferguson, Colin; Gorski, Elizabeth; Campbell, Anne (2010-12-13). "Impelling and Inhibitory Forces in Aggression: Sex-of-Target and Relationship Effects". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 26 (15): 3098–3126. doi:10.1177/0886260510390953.
  20. Cross, Catharine P.; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne (2011-05-01). "Gender symmetry in intimate aggression: an effect of intimacy or target sex?". Aggressive Behavior. 37 (3): 268–277. doi:10.1002/ab.20388. ISSN 1098-2337.
  21. Carter, Gregory Louis; Campbell, Anne C.; Muncer, Steven; Carter, Katherine A. (2015-09-01). "A Mokken analysis of the Dark Triad 'Dirty Dozen': Sex and age differences in scale structures, and issues with individual items". Personality and Individual Differences. 83: 185–191. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.012.
  22. Carter, Gregory Louis; Campbell, Anne C.; Muncer, Steven (2014-01-01). "The Dark Triad: Beyond a 'male' mating strategy". Personality and Individual Differences. 56: 159–164. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.09.001.
  23. Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne (2013-12-05). "Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1631): 20130073. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0073. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3826202. PMID 24167303.
  24. Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne (2017-03-01). "Maternal Competition in Women". Human Nature. 28 (1): 92–116. doi:10.1007/s12110-016-9279-2. ISSN 1045-6767.
  25. "Sexes split over one night stands". BBC News. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
  26. Campbell, Anne. Feminism and Evolutionary Psychology. pp. 63–100. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130027.003.0002.
  27. Campbell, Anne (2012-01-01). "The Study of Sex Differences". Zeitschrift für Psychologie. 220 (2): 137–143. doi:10.1027/2151-2604/a000105. ISSN 2190-8370.
  28. Anne., Campbell, (2013-01-01). A mind of her own : the evolutionary psychology of women. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199609543. OCLC 882844268.
  29. Campbell, C.; Muncer, S. J. (2005-01-01). "The causes of low back pain: a network analysis". Social Science & Medicine. Equity, Capabilities and Health. 60 (2): 409–419. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.013.
  30. Cross, Catharine P.; Campbell, Anne (2017-01-10). "Integrating Approaches Requires More Than a Division of Labor". Psychological Science. 28 (2): 248–250. doi:10.1177/0956797616652100.
  31. Cross, Catharine P.; Campbell, Anne. "Women's aggression". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 16 (5): 390–398. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.012.
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