|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||257.221 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine. It is a non-prescription drug in most countries and in the United States it is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
Studies have investigated the efficacy of alpha-GPC for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer's disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance. Commonly used doses are 300 to 1,200 mg daily.
Industrially, alpha-GPC is produced by the chemical or enzymatic deacylation of phosphatidylcholine enriched soya phospholipids followed by chromatographic purification. Alpha-GPC may also be derived in small amounts from highly purified soy lecithin as well from purified sunflower lecithin.
The key companies operating in the global GPC market include Avanti Polar Lipids, Lipoid GmbH, VAV Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd. and NOF Corporation.
Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable; however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquefied or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.
- De Jesus Moreno Moreno M (January 2003). "Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Clin Ther. 25 (1): 178–93. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3. PMID 12637119.
- Parnetti, Lucilla; et al. (2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 257 (1–2): 264–9. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043. PMID 17331541.
- Doggrell SA & Evans S; Evans (October 2003). "Treatment of dementia with neurotransmission modulation". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 12 (10): 1633–1654. doi:10.1517/135437220.127.116.113. PMID 14519085.
- US Food and Drug Administration: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Determination for the Use of AlphaSize Alpha-Glycerylphosphoryl Choline
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- "VAV Life Sciences launches India's first phospholipid manufacturing plant". Express Pharma. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "2017 Global Soybean Phospholipid Market:- Avanti Polar Lipids, VAV Life Sciences, Lipoid GmbH, Cargill, Danisco and ADM". PostObserver. PRNewswire. Retrieved April 21, 2018.