Allies of World War I

Allies of World War I
1914–1918
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers

Principal Allied Powers:

 France
British Empire
 Russia to October 1917
 Japan from August 1914
 Italy from April 1915
 United States; co-belligerent from April 1917


Associated Allies and co-belligerents:
Status Military alliance
Historical era World War I
 Established
1914
 Disestablished
1918
Succeeded by
Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the 1914-1918 First World War. The Allies were further divided into so-called Principal and Associated or Affiliated Powers.

In 1907, the French Third Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire formed the Triple Entente; entry into the war in 1914 automatically involved their respective colonies, while Japan was added to the Entente in August 1914. Originally part of the 1882 Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy remained neutral in 1914 before joining the Entente in 1915. Affiliated or Associated members of the Entente included Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Romania.[3]

In April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany, then on Austria in December; the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria broke off diplomatic relations with the US but neither declared war.[4] The US joined the Entente as a Co-belligerent, due to the long-standing American opposition to formal alliances.[5]

Background

When the war began in 1914, the Central Powers were opposed by the Triple Entente, formed in 1907 by the British Empire, the Russian Empire and the French Third Republic.

Fighting commenced when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, purportedly in response to the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Emperor Franz Joseph; this brought Serbia's ally Montenegro into the war on 8 August and it attacked the Austrian naval base at Cattaro, modern Kotor.[6] At the same time, German troops entered neutral Belgium and Luxembourg as dictated by the Schlieffen Plan; over 95% of Belgium was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war. This allowed Belgium to be treated as an Ally, in contrast to Luxembourg which retained control over domestic affairs but was occupied by the German military.

In the East, between 7-9 August the Russians entered German East Prussia on 7 August, Austrian Eastern Galicia. Japan joined the Entente by declaring war on Germany on 23 August, then Austria on 25 August.[7] On 2 September, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China and occupied German colonies in the Pacific, including the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands.

Despite its membership of the Triple Alliance, Italy remained neutral until 23 May 1915 when it joined the Entente, declaring war on Austria but not Germany. On 17 January 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente;[8] this was offset when Germany declared war on Portugal in March 1916, while Romania commenced hostilities against Austria on 27 August.[9]

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war as a co-belligerent, along with the associated allies of Liberia, Siam and Greece. After the 1917 October Revolution, Russia left the Entente and agreed a separate peace with the Central Powers with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. Romania was forced to do the same in the May 1918 Treaty of Bucharest but on 10 November, it repudiated the Treaty and once more declared war on the Central Powers.

These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Britain, Italy, Japan and the US; Part One of the Treaty agreed to the establishment of the League of Nations on 25 January 1919.[10] This came into being on 16 January 1920 with Britain, France, Italy and Japan as permanent members of the Executive Council; the US Senate voted against ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on 19 March, thus preventing American participation.

Statistics

Statistics of the Allied Powers (1913) and enlisted soldiers during the war[11]
Population
(millions)
Land
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
Mobilized personnel
First Wave: 1914
Russian Empire Russia (inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7 12,000,0003
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
Total 176.4 22.1 264.3
French Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7 8,410,0003
French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5
Total 88.1 11.2 170.2
British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4 6,211,9222
British colonies 380.2 13.5 257 1,440,4371[12]
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8 1,307,0001
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2 8,689,000[13]
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5 800,0003
Japanese colonies[14] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[15] 7.0 0.2 7.2 760,0003
Second Wave (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3 5,615,0003
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Portuguese Republic Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4 100,0003
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7 750,0003
Third Wave (1917–18)
United States of America United States 96.5 7.8 511.6 4,355,0003
overseas dependencies[16] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[17] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Republic of the United States of Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3 1,71312
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7 230,0003
Kingdom of Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0 1,2842
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Republic of Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[18]
Population
(millions)
Territory
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1916
Allies, total 853.3 72.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.8
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.3 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[19] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Principal Powers

The British Empire

Possession of Belgium allowed an opponent to invade or blockade its trade and denying control to a hostile power was a long-term strategic interest for Britain; restoring Belgian neutrality became a primary British war aim.[20] Under Article VII of the 1839 Treaty of London that recognised Belgian independence, Austria, France, Germany and Russia guaranteed its neutrality, while Britain undertook its defence against aggression by any other state. The German High Command was aware entering Belgium would trigger British intervention but decided the risk was acceptable; in common with most of Europe, they expected it to be a short war while their Ambassador in London claimed civil war in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting France.[21] The delay in declaring war was because the Liberal government preferred to wait until Belgium neutrality had been breached in order to maintain political unity.

On 3 August, Germany demanded unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium; when this was refused, the German Army invaded on the morning of 4 August. The Belgians now called for assistance under the 1839 Treaty and in response, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[22]

This automatically involved all members of the Empire, many of whom made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, both in the provision of troops and civilian labourers. It was split into Crown Colonies administered by the Colonial Office in London, such as Nigeria, [lower-alpha 1] and the self-governing Dominions of Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. These controlled their own domestic policies and military expenditure but not foreign policy.

The anomaly was British India or the Empire of India, which then included modern India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Bangladesh; this was governed directly by British officials on behalf of George V, rather than the Colonial Office. Over one million members of the British Indian Army served in different theatres of the war, primarily France and the Middle East.

From 1914-1916, overall Imperial diplomatic, political and military strategy was controlled by the British War Cabinet in London; in 1917 it was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which included representatives from the Dominions.[23] Under the War Cabinet were the Chief of the Imperial General Staff or CIGS, responsible for all Imperial ground forces, and the Admiralty that did the same for the Royal Navy. Theatre commanders like Douglas Haig on the Western Front or Edmund Allenby in Palestine then reported to the CIGS.

Apart from the Indian Army, the largest individual units were the Australian Corps and Canadian Corps in France, which by 1918 were commanded by their own generals, John Monash and Arthur Currie.[24] Contingents from South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland served in theatres including France, Gallipoli, German East Africa and the Middle East. Australian troops separately occupied German New Guinea, with the South Africans doing the same in German South West Africa; this resulted in the Maritz rebellion by former Boers, which was quickly suppressed. After the war, New Guinea and South-West Africa became Protectorates, held until 1975 and 1990 respectively.

The Russian Empire

Between 1873-1887, Russia was allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary in the League of the Three Emperors, then with Germany in the 1887-1890 Reinsurance Treaty; both collapsed due to the competing interests of Austria and Russia in the Balkans. While France took advantage of this to agree the 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance, Britain viewed Russia with deep suspicion; in 1800, over 3,000 kilometres separated the Russian Empire and British India, by 1902, it was 30 kms in some areas.[25] This threatened to bring the two into direct conflict, as did the long-held Russian objective of gaining control of the Bosporus Straits and with it access to the British-dominated Mediterranean Sea.[26]

Defeat in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and Britain's isolation during the 1899-1902 Second Boer War led both parties to seek allies. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 settled disputes in Asia and allowed the establishment of the Triple Entente with France, which at this stage was largely informal. In 1908, Austria annexed the former Ottoman province of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Russia responded by creating the Balkan League in order to prevent further Austrian expansion.[27] In the 1912-1913 First Balkan War, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece captured most of the remaining Ottoman possessions in Europe; disputes over the division of these resulted in the Second Balkan War, in which Bulgaria was comprehensively defeated by its former allies.

Russia's industrial base and railway network had significantly improved since 1905, although from a relatively low base; in 1913, Tsar Nicholas approved an increase in the Russian Army of over 500,000 men. Although there was no formal alliance between Russia and Serbia, their close bilateral links provided Russia with a route into the crumbling Ottoman Empire, where Germany also had significant interests. Combined with the increase in Russian military strength, both Austria and Germany felt threatened by Serbian expansion; when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov viewed it as an Austro-German conspiracy to end Russian influence in the Balkans.[28]

On 30 July, Russia declared general mobilisation in support of Serbia; on 1 August, Germany declared war on Russia, followed by Austria-Hungary on 6th. Russia and the Entente declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914, after Ottoman warships bombarded the Black Sea port of Odessa in late October.[29] Unlike its Allies, Russia's Empire was one contiguous landmass but it also considered itself the defender of its fellow Slavs in countries like Serbia.

The French Republic

French defeat in the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War led to the loss of the two provinces of Alsace-Lorraine and the establishment of the Third Republic. The suppression of the Paris Commune by the new regime caused deep political divisions and led to a series of bitter political struggles, such as the Dreyfus affair. As a result, aggressive nationalism or Revanchism was one of the few areas to unite the French.

The loss of Alsace-Lorraine deprived France of its natural defence line on the Rhine, while it was weaker demographically than Germany, whose 1911 population was 64.9 million to 39.6 in France, which had the lowest birthrate in Europe.[30] This meant that despite their very different political systems, when Germany allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to lapse, France seized the opportunity to agree the 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance. It also replaced Germany as the primary source of financing for Russian industry and the expansion of its railway network, particularly in border areas with Germany and Austria-Hungary.[31]

However, Russian defeat in the 1904-195 Russo-Japanese War damaged its credibility, while Britain's isolation during the Second Boer War meant both countries sought additional allies. This resulted in the 1904 Entente Cordiale with Britain; like the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention, for domestic British consumption it focused on settling colonial disputes but led to informal co-operation in other areas. By 1914, both the British army and Royal Navy were committed to support France in the event of war with Germany but even in the British government, very few were aware of the extent of these commitments.[32]

In response to Germany's declaration of war on Russia, France issued a general mobilization in expectation of war on 2 August and on 3 August, Germany also declared war on France.[33] Germany's ultimatum to Belgium brought Britain into the war on 4 August, although France did not declare war on Austria-Hungary until 12 August.

As with Britain, France's colonies also became part of the war; pre-1914, French soldiers and politicians advocated using French African recruits to help compensate for France's demographic weakness.[34] From August to December 1914, the French lost nearly 300,000 dead on the Western Front, more than Britain suffered in the whole of WWII and the gaps were partly filled by colonial troops, over 500,000 of whom served on the Western Front over the period 1914-1918.[35] Colonial troops also fought at Gallipoli, occupied Togo and Kamerun in West Africa and had a minor role in the Middle East, where France was the traditional protector of Christians in the Ottoman provinces of Syria, Palestine and Lebanon.[36]

Empire of Japan

Prior to the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan was a semi-feudal, largely agrarian state with few natural resources and limited technology. By 1914, it had transformed itself into a modern industrial state, with a powerful military; by defeating China in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, it established itself as the primary power in East Asia and acquired the then-unified Korea and Formosa, now modern Taiwan.

Concerned by Russian expansion in Korea and Manchuria, Britain and Japan signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance on January 30, 1902, agreeing if either were attacked by a third party, the other would remain neutral and if attacked by two or more opponents, the other would come to its aid. This meant Japan could rely on British support in a war with Russia, if either France or Germany, which also had interests in China, decided to join them.[37] This gave Japan the reassurance needed to take on Russia in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War; victory established Japan in the Chinese province of Manchuria.

With Japan as an ally in the Far East, John Fisher, First Sea Lord from 1904-1910, was able to re-focus British naval resources in the North Sea to counter the threat from the Imperial German Navy. The Alliance was renewed in 1911; in 1914, Japan joined the Entente in return for German territories in the Pacific, greatly annoying the Australian government which also wanted them.[38]

On 7 August, Britain officially asked for assistance in destroying German naval units in China and Japan formally declared war on Germany on 23 August, followed by Austria-Hungary on 25th.[39] On 2 September 1914, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Qingdao, then known as Tsingtao, which surrendered on 7 November. The Imperial Japanese Navy simultaneously occupied German colonies in the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands, while in 1917, a Japanese naval squadron was sent to support the Allies in the Mediterranean.[40]

Japan's primary interest was in China and in January 1915, the Chinese government was presented with a secret ultimatum of Twenty-One Demands, demanding extensive economic and political concessions. While these were eventually modified, the result was a surge of anti-Japanese nationalism in China and an economic boycott of Japanese goods.[41] In addition, the other Allies now saw Japan as a threat, rather than a partner, lead to tensions first with Russia, then the US after it entered the war in April 1917. Despite protests from the other Allies, after the war Japan refused to return Qingdao and the province of Shandong to China.[42]

Kingdom of Italy

The 1882 Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy was renewed at regular intervals, but was compromised by conflicting objectives between Italy and Austria in the Adriatic and Aegean seas. Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held Trieste and South Tyrol as 'the lost territories,' making the Alliance so controversial that the terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915.[43]

Alberto Pollio, the pro-Austrian Chief of Staff of the Italian Army died on 1 July 1914, taking many of the prospects for Italian support with him.[44] The Italian Prime Minister Antonio Salandra argued that as the Alliance was defensive in nature, Austria's aggression against Serbia and Italy's exclusion from the decision-making process meant it was not obliged to join them.[45]

His caution was understandable because France and Britain either supplied or controlled the import of most of Italy's raw materials, including 90% of its coal.[45] Salandra described the process of choosing a side as 'sacred egoism,' but as the war was expected to end before mid-1915 at the latest, making this decision became increasingly urgent.[46] In line with Italy's obligations under the Triple Alliance, the bulk of the army was concentrated on Italy's border with France; in October, Pollio's replacement, General Luigi Cadorna, was ordered to begin moving these troops to the North-Eastern one with Austria.[47]

Under the April 1915 Treaty of London, Italy agreed to join the Entente in return for Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary and other concessions; in return, it declared war on Austria-Hungary in May 1915 as required, although not on Germany until 1916.[48] Italian resentment at the difference between the promises of 1915 and the actual results of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles would be powerful factors in the rise of Mussolini.[49]

Affiliated state combatants

Kingdom of Belgium

In 1830, the southern provinces of the Netherlands broke away to form the Kingdom of Belgium and their independence was confirmed by the 1839 Treaty of London. Article VII of the Treaty required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral and committed Austria, France, Germany and Russia to guarantee that against aggression by any other state, including the signatories.

It was accepted Germany would probably violate Belgian neutrality in the event of war with France; what wasn't clear was the extent. The original Schlieffen Plan required only a limited incursion into the Belgian Ardennes, rather than a full scale invasion; in September 1911, the Belgian Foreign Minister told a British Embassy official they would not call for assistance if the Germans limited themselves to that.[50] While neither Britain or France could allow Germany free passage through Belgium, a Belgian refusal to ask for help would complicate matters for the British Liberal government, which contained a significant isolationist element.

However, Russian military expansion and fears of a two front war meant the German High Command now viewed a quick victory over France as imperative; the huge increase in military spending in 1913 meant that to accommodate the extra troops, the 'incursion' became a full-scale invasion. The Germans accepted the risk of British intervention; in common with most of Europe, they expected it to be a short war while their London Ambassador claimed civil war in Ireland would prevent Britain from assisting its Entente partners.[51]

On 3 August, the Belgian government received an ultimatum demanding they allow the Germans unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium, which was refused. Early on the morning of 4 August, the German Army invaded and the Belgians called for assistance under the 1839 Treaty, bringing Britain into the war; by the end of 1914, over 95% of the country was occupied but the Belgian Army held their lines on the Yser Front throughout the war.

In 1916, 25,000 Congolese troops plus an estimated 260,000 porters from the Belgian Congo joined British forces in the East African Campaign.[52] By 1917, they controlled the western part of German East Africa which would become the Belgian League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi or modern-day Rwanda and Burundi.[53]

Brazil

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. The First Brazilian Republic sent the Naval Division in War Operations that joined the British fleet in Gibraltar and made the first Brazilian naval effort in international waters. In compliance with the commitments made at the Inter-American Conference, held in Paris from November 20 to December 3, 1917, the Brazilian Government sent a medical mission composed of civilian and military surgeons to work in field hospitals of the European theater, a contingent of sergeants and officers to serve with the French army; Airmen from the Army and Navy to join the Royal Air Force, and the employment of part of the Fleet, primarily in the anti-submarine war.

Greece

The disagreement between the pro-German King Constantine I of Greece and the liberal Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, regarding the country's stance, caused a National Schism, but eventually a united Greece joined the Allies in 1917, while Greek units were fighting at the Macedonian Front since 1916.

Montenegro

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Nejd and Hasa

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[54]

Idrisid Emirate of Asir

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Kingdom of Serbia

In 1804, the Principality of Serbia became an autonomous province within the Ottoman Empire; with Russian support, it gained full independence after the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War. Many Serbs viewed Russia as protector of the South Slavs in general but also specifically against Bulgaria, where Russian objectives increasingly collided with Bulgarian nationalism.[55]

When Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, Russia responded by creating the Balkan League to prevent further Austrian expansion.[56] Austria viewed Serbia with hostility partly due to its links with Russia, whose claim to be the protector of South Slavs extended to those within the Austro-Hungarian empire, such as the Czechs and Slovaks. Serbia also potentially gave Russia the ability to achieve their long-held objective of capturing Constantinople and the Dardanelles.[57]

Austria backed the Albanian revolt of 1910 and the idea of a Greater Albania, since this would prevent Serbian access to the Austrian-controlled Adriatic Sea.[58] Another Albanian revolt in 1912 exposed the weakness of the Ottoman Empire and led to the 1912-1913 First Balkan War, with Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece capturing most of the remaining Ottoman possessions in Europe. Disputes over the division of these resulted in the Second Balkan War, in which Bulgaria was comprehensively defeated by its former allies.

As a result of the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest, Serbia increased its territory by 100% and its population by 64%.[59] However, it now faced a hostile Austria-Hungary, a resentful Bulgaria and opposition by Albanian nationalists. Germany too had ambitions in the Ottoman Empire, the centrepiece being the planned Berlin–Baghdad railway, with Serbia the only section not controlled by a pro-German state.

The exact role played by Serbian officials in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand is still debated but despite complying with most of their demands, Austria-Hungary invaded on 28 July 1914. While Serbia successfully repulsed the Austro-Hungarian army in 1914, it was exhausted by the two Balkan Wars and unable to replace its losses of men and equipment. In 1915, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and by the end of the year, a combined Bulgar-Austrian-German army occupied most of Serbia. Between 1914-1918, Serbia suffered the greatest proportional losses of any combatant, with over 25% of all those mobilised becoming casualties; including civilians and deaths from disease, over 1.2 million died, nearly 30% of the entire population.

Kingdom of Romania

Equal status with the main Allied Powers was one of the primary conditions for Romania's entry into the War. The Powers officially recognized this status through the 1916 Treaty of Bucharest.[60] Romania fought on 3 of the 4 European Fronts: Eastern, Balkan and Italian, fielding in total over 1,200,000 troops.[61]

Romanian military industry was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Krupp 105 mm howitzers, the result being the most effective field howitzer in Europe at that time. Romania even managed to design and build from scratch its own model of mortar, the 250 mm Negrei Model 1916.[62]

Other Romanian technological assets include the building of Vlaicu III, the world's first aircraft made of metal.[63] The Romanian Navy possessed the largest warships on the Danube. They were a class of 4 river monitors, built locally at the Galați shipyard using parts manufactured in Austria-Hungary, and the first one launched was Lascăr Catargiu, in 1907.[64][65] The Romanian monitors displaced almost 700 tons, were armed with three 120 mm naval guns in 3 turrets, two 120 mm naval howitzers, four 47 mm anti-aircraft guns and two 6.5 machine guns.[66] The monitors took part in the Battle of Turtucaia and the First Battle of Cobadin. The Romanian-designed Schneider 150 mm Model 1912 howitzer was considered one of the most modern field guns on the Western Front.[67]

Romania's entry into the War in August 1916 provoked major changes for the Germans. General Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed and sent to command the Central Powers forces in Romania, which enabled Hindenburg's subsequent ascension to power.[68] Due to having to fight against all of the Central Powers on the longest front in Europe (1,600 km) and with little foreign help (only 50,000 Russians aided 650,000 Romanians in 1916),[69] the Romanian capital was conquered that December. Vlaicu III was also captured and shipped to Germany, being last seen in 1942.[70] The Romanian administration established a new capital at Iași and continued to fight on the Allied side in 1917.[71] Despite being relatively short, the Romanian campaign of 1916 provided considerable respite for the Western Allies, as the Germans ceased all their other offensive operations in order to deal with Romania.[72] After suffering a tactical defeat against the Romanians (aided by Russians) in July 1917 at Mărăști, the Central Powers launched two counterattacks, at Mărășești and Oituz. The German offensive at Mărășești was soundly defeated, with German prisoners later telling their Romanian captors that German casualties were extremely heavy, and that they "had not encountered such stiff resistance since the battles of Somme and Verdun".[73] The Austro-Hungarian offensive at Oituz also failed. On 22 September, the Austro-Hungarian Enns-class river monitor SMS Inn was sunk by a Romanian mine near Brăila.[74][75] After Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and dropped out of the War, Romania was left surrounded by the Central Powers and eventually signed a similar treaty on 7 May 1918. Despite being forced to cede land to Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, Romania ended up with a net gain in territory due to the Union with Bessarabia. On 10 November, Romania re-entered the War and fought a war with Hungary that lasted until August 1919.

Co-belligerents; the United States

The United States declared war on Germany in April 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[76] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly seven decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[5] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war,[4] as did Austria-Hungary. Eventually, however, the United States also declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917, predominantly to help hard-pressed Italy.

Non-state combatants

Three non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

Leaders

Serbia

Montenegro

Russia (1914–1917)

Belgium

France

British Empire

Dominion of Canada

Commonwealth of Australia

Empire of India

Union of South Africa

Dominion of New Zealand

Dominion of Newfoundland

Japan

Italy (1915–1918)

Romania (1916–1918)

Portugal (1916–1918)

Greece (1916/17–1918)

  • Constantine I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, due to Allied pressure, without formally resigning.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King in 1917 after his father and brother retired from the throne.
  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general of the Hellenic Army.

United States (1917–1918)

Siam (Thailand) (1917–1918)

See main Article: Siam in World War I

Brazil (1917–1918)

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

Armenia (1918)

Personnel and casualties

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia412,953161,928 (14.99%)[78]152,171214,09952%
Belgium267,000338,172 (14.29%)([79]44,68682,85831%
Brazil1,71312100 (5.84%)[80]01005.84%
Canada628,964164,944 (10.32%)[81]149,732214,67634%
France8,410,00031,397,800 (16.62%)[82]4,266,0005,663,80067%
Greece230,000326,000 (11.30%)[83]21,00047,00020%
India1,440,437174,187 (5.15%)[84]69,214143,40110%
Italy5,615,0003651,010 (11.59%)[85]953,8861,604,89629%
Japan800,0003415 (0.05%)[86]9071,322<1%
Monaco80[87]8 (10.00%)[87]08[87]10%
Montenegro50,00033,000 (6.00%)10,00013,00026%
Nepal200,000[88]30,670 (15.33%)21,00949,82325%
New Zealand128,525118,050 (14.04%)[89]41,31759,36746%
Portugal100,00037,222 (7.22%)[90]13,75120,97321%
Romania750,0003250,000 (33.33%)[91]120,000370,00049%
Russia12,000,00031,811,000 (15.09%)[92]4,950,0006,761,00056%
Serbia707,3433275,000 (38.87%)[93]133,148408,14858%
Siam1,284219 (1.48%)0192%
South Africa136,07019,463 (6.95%)[94]12,02921,49216%
United Kingdom6,211,9222886,342 (14.26%)[95]1,665,7492,552,09141%
United States4,355,000353,402 (1.23%)[96]205,690259,0925.9%
Total 42,244,4095,741,38912,925,83318,744,54749%

See also

Footnotes

References

  1. Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson
  2. Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania and King Zog ... By Owen Pearson
  3. Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  4. 1 2 Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  5. 1 2 Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  6. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 44. ISBN 9780006376668.
  7. Mizokami, Kyle, "Japan’s baptism of fire: World War I put country on a collision course with West", The Japan Times, 27 July 2014
  8. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 225. ISBN 9780006376668.
  9. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 282. ISBN 9780006376668.
  10. Magliveras, Konstantin (1999). Exclusion from Participation in International Organisations: The Law and Practice Behind Member States' Expulsion and Suspension of Membership. Brill. pp. 8–12. ISBN 9041112391.
  11. S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  12. Indian Army only
  13. Baker, Chris. "Some British Army statistics of the Great War". www.1914-1918.net. Archived from the original on 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  14. Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  15. Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  16. As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  17. Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  18. S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  19. Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  20. Nilesh, Preeta (2014). "Belgian Neutrality and the First world War; Some Insights". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 75: 1014. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  21. Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 852-864: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
  22. Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  23. Schuyler, Robert Livingston (March 1920). "The British Cabinet, 1916-1919". Political Science Quarterly. 35 (1): 77–93. doi:10.2307/2141500.
  24. Perry (2004), p.xiii
  25. Hopkirk, Peter (1990). The Great Game; On Secret Service in High Asia (1991 ed.). OUP. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0719564476.
  26. Dennis, Alfred L.P. (December 1922). "The Freedom of the Straits". The North American Review. 216 (805): 728–729. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  27. Stowell, Ellery Cory (1915). The Diplomacy of the War of 1914: The Beginnings of the War (2010 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 1165819562.
  28. Jelavich, Barbara (2008). Russia's Balkan Entanglements. Cambridge University Press. p. 262. ISBN 0521522501.
  29. Afflerbach, Holger (ed), Stevenson, david (ed), Aksakal, Mustafa (2012). War as a Saviour? Hopes for War & Peace in Ottoman Politics before 1914 in An Improbable War? the Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture Before 1914. Berghahn Books. p. 293. ISBN 0857453106.
  30. Baux, Jean-Pierre. "1914; A Demographically Weakened France". Chemins de Memoire. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  31. Starns, Karl M (2012). The Russian Railways and Imperial Intersections in the Russian Empire (PDF). Master of Arts in International Studies Thesis for Washington University. pp. 47–49. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  32. Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 759-781: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
  33. Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  34. Hargreaves, John (1983). "French West Africa in the First World War; a review of L'Appel à l'Afrique. Contributions et Réactions à l'Effort de guerre en A.O.F. (1914-1919) by Marc Michel". The Journal of African History. 24 (2): 285. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  35. Koller, Christian. "Colonial Military Participation in Europe". 1914-1918 Online. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  36. Tanenbaum, Jan Karl (1978). "France and the Arab Middle East, 1914-1920". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 68 (7): 5. doi:10.2307/1006273. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  37. Cavendish, Richard (January 2002). "The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance". History Today. 52 (1). Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  38. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 123. ISBN 9780006376668.
  39. "宣戦の詔書 [Sensen no shōsho, Imperial Rescript on Declaration of War] (Aug. 23, 1914), Kanpō, Extra ed., Aug. 23, 1914" (PDF).
  40. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 329. ISBN 9780006376668.
  41. Zhitian Luo, "National humiliation and national assertion-The Chinese response to the twenty-one demands", Modern Asian Studies (1993) 27#2 pp 297-319.
  42. Gilbert, Martin (1994). First World War (1995 ed.). Harper Collins. p. 522. ISBN 9780006376668.
  43. Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
  44. Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
  45. 1 2 Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
  46. Clark, Mark (2008). Modern Italy, 1871 to the Present (Longman History of Italy). Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1405823524.
  47. Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
  48. Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
  49. Thompson, Mark (2008). The White War. Faber. pp. 378–382. ISBN 978-0-571-22334-3.
  50. Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 759-781: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
  51. Brock, Michael (ed), Brock, Elinor (ed) (2014). Margot Asquith's Great War Diary 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street (Kindle ed.). 852-864: OUP Oxford; Reprint edition. ISBN 0198737726.
  52. van Reybrouck, David (2014). Congo: The Epic History of a People. Harper Collins. pp. 132 passim. ISBN 0062200127.
  53. Strachan, Hew (2014). First World War; a New History. Simon & Schuster UK. p. 70. ISBN 1471134261.
  54. Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186.
  55. Roudometof, Victor (2001). Nationalism, Globalization, and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans. Praeger Publishing. p. 79. ISBN 0313319499.
  56. Stowell, Ellery Cory (1915). The Diplomacy of the War of 1914: The Beginnings of the War (2010 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 1165819562.
  57. Dennis, Alfred L.P. (December 1922). "The Freedom of the Straits". The North American Review. 216 (805): 728–729. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  58. Clark, Christopher (2013). The Sleepwalkers. Harper. pp. 282–283. ISBN 006114665X.
  59. Clark, Christopher (2013). The Sleepwalkers. Harper. p. 285. ISBN 006114665X.
  60. Charles Upson Clark, United Roumania, p. 135
  61. Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, Encyclopedia of World War I, p. 273
  62. Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), pp. 40, 49, 50, 54, 59, 61, 63, 65 and 66 (in Romanian)
  63. Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  64. International Naval Research Organization, Warship International, Volume 21, p. 160
  65. Frederick Thomas Jane, Jane's Fighting Ships, p. 343
  66. Robert Gardiner, Conway's All the World Fighting Ships 1906–1921, p. 422
  67. Adrian Storea, Gheorghe Băjenaru, Artileria română în date și imagini (Romanian artillery in data and pictures), p. 53 (in Romanian)
  68. Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 282
  69. Glenn E. Torrey, Romania and World War I, p. 58
  70. Michael Hundertmark, Holger Steinle, Phoenix aus der Asche – Die Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung Berlin, pp. 110–114 (in German)
  71. România în anii primului război mondial (Romania in the years of the First World War), Volume II, p. 830 (in Romanian)
  72. Martin Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 287
  73. King of Battle: Artillery in World War I, p. 347
  74. Angus Konstam, Gunboats of World War I, p. 29
  75. René Greger, Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I, p. 142
  76. "First World War.com - Primary Documents - U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917".
  77. first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  78. Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–215-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead1,237.
  79. Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85 Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." 1,352.
  80. Francisco Verras; "D.N.O.G.: contribuicao da Marinha Brasileira na Grande Guerra" ("DNOG; the role of Brazilian Navy in the Great War") (in Portuguese) "A Noite" Ed. 1920
  81. Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths5-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead1,237.
  82. France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. 7,414-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.7,414
  83. Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing8,339, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease6,160
  84. India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead5. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead1,237
  85. Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data9.
  86. War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army10,111.
  87. 1 2 3 "Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur".
  88. Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  89. New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–215. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead1,237.
  90. Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW1,354.
  91. Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"6,64. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
  92. Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.6,46–57
  93. Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis6,62–64
  94. South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–2115. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead1,237.
  95. UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds6,85.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.4
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths5. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK1,237, 507 from "Other colonies"1,237 and the Royal Navy (32,287)1,339.
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately 1,339; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK1,674–678.
  96. United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths. Archived 25 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine., The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead 11,481.

Sources

  • ^1 The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1-84734-681-2. OCLC 137236769. 
  • ^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521077-8. OCLC 233987354. 
  • ^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X. 
  • ^4 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF). 
  • ^5 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. 
  • ^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938. 
  • ^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464. 
  • ^8 Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602. 
  • ^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099. 
  • ^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. OCLC 32615324. 
  • ^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. OCLC 48066096. 
  • ^12 Hernâni Donato (1987). Dicionário das Batalhas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro: IBRASA. ISBN 8534800340. 

Bibliography

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940), 475pp summarizes memoirs of major participants
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
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