Alfred H. Colquitt

Alfred H. Colquitt
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
March 4, 1883  March 26, 1894
Preceded by Middleton P. Barrow
Succeeded by Patrick Walsh
49th Governor of Georgia
In office
January 12, 1877  November 4, 1882
Preceded by James M. Smith
Succeeded by Alexander H. Stephens
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1853  March 3, 1855
Preceded by James Johnson
Succeeded by Martin J. Crawford
Member of the Georgia State Legislature
Personal details
Born Alfred Holt Colquitt
(1824-04-20)April 20, 1824
Monroe, Georgia
Died March 26, 1894(1894-03-26) (aged 69)
Washington, D.C.
Resting place Rose Hill Cemetery,
Macon, Georgia
Political party Democratic
Military service
Allegiance  United States of America
 Confederate States of America
Service/branch United States Army
 Confederate States Army
Years of service 1846–1848
Rank Major (USA)
Brigadier General (CSA)
Commands 6th Georgia Infantry Regiment
Colquitt's Brigade
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War

Alfred Holt Colquitt (April 20, 1824  March 26, 1894) was an American lawyer, preacher, soldier, 49th Governor of Georgia (1877-1882) and two-term U.S. Senator from Georgia (1883-1894), dying in office. He also served as an officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, reaching the rank of brigadier general.

Early life

Alfred Colquitt was born in Monroe, Georgia. His father, Walter T. Colquitt was a United States Representative and Senator from Georgia. The younger Colquitt graduated from Princeton College in 1844, studied law and passed his bar examination in 1846. He began practicing law in Monroe.

During the Mexican-American War, he served as a paymaster in the United States Army at the rank of major.[1] After the war, Colquitt was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1853 to 1855. He next was elected to and served in the Georgia state legislature. Colquitt was a delegate to The Georgia Secession Convention of 1861—voting in favor of secession and signing Georgia's Ordinance of Secession on January 19, 1861.

Civil War

At the beginning of the civil war, Colquitt was appointed captain in the 6th Georgia Infantry. Eventually rising to colonel, he led his regiment in the Peninsula Campaign. At Seven Pines, he assumed brigade command after Brig. Gen Gabriel Rains was wounded, and led it through the Seven Days Battles.[2]He led his brigade under Stonewall Jackson in the Battle of South Mountain,[3] Battle of Antietam,[4] the Battle of Fredericksburg, and the Battle of Chancellorsville. Colquitt survived Antietam unscathed despite almost every other officer in the brigade being killed or wounded, and after the battle was immediately promoted to brigadier general, to rank from September 1.[5] After Chancellorsville, some questions arose about Colquitt's performance during that battle,[6] so he was sent back to North Carolina in exchange for Brig. Gen Junius Daniel's brigade. His brigade was transferred again in the summer of 1863 to protect Charleston, South Carolina.[7] In February 1864, Colquitt marched his brigade south to help defend against the Union invasion of Florida, and was victorious in the Battle of Olustee.[8] After this battle, Colquitt's brigade rejoined Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Late in the war the brigade returned to defend North Carolina, where Colquitt surrendered in 1865.

Political Life

After returning to political life, Colquitt defeated Republican candidate Jonathan Norcross for governor of Georgia in 1876, part of the regaining of power of white Democrats in the state. He was opposed to Reconstruction. Around that time, several thousand friends asked for about 30 open government jobs. Those who did not get one of the jobs tried to turn voters against Colquitt. There also were rumors that Colquitt had been involved in illegal dealings with the Northeastern Railroad. A legislative committee found the governor innocent.

He was reelected in 1880 to serve two years under the new state constitution, which reduced the term of governor.[9] Under his term, debt was reduced. In 1883, Colquitt was elected by the state legislature as a Democrat to the US Senate from Georgia. He was re-elected to a second term in 1888. In 1892, Colquitt suffered a stroke and became partially paralyzed. He recovered enough to resume his duties as a Senator, but in March 1894, he suffered another stroke that left him mostly incapacitated. He died two weeks later[10]and was buried in Rose Hill cemetery in Macon.

See also


  1. Lewis, Felice Flanery (2010). Trailing Clouds of Glory : Zachary Taylor's Mexican War Campaign and His Emerging Civil War Leaders. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780817316785. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  2. Burton, Brian K. (2001). Extraordinary Circumstances : The Seven Days Battles. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0253222770. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  3. Hartwig, D. Scott (2012). To Antietam Creek : The Maryland Campaign Of September 1862. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 301. ISBN 9781421406312. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  4. Toney, B. (1997). "Horrors of the Bloody Lane". America's Civil War. 10 (4). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  5. Sears, Stephen W. (1996). Chancellorsville. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. p. 240. ISBN 0395634172. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  6. Phalen, Anne Howard (1991). "In Defense of My Great Grandfather". American Heritage. 42 (1). Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  7. Wise, Stephen (1994). Gate of Hell : Campaign for Charleston Harbor, 1863. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780872499850. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  8. Howland, Chris (2014). "Rebel rally in the Sunshine State". America's Civil War. 26 (6): 38. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  9. Perman, Michael (1984). The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 207. ISBN 0807841412. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  10. Welsh, Jack D. (2013). Medical Histories of Confederate Generals. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9781306303101. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
James Johnson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1853 – March 3, 1855
Succeeded by
Martin J. Crawford
Political offices
Preceded by
James M. Smith
Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
Alexander H. Stephens
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Middleton P. Barrow
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
Served alongside: Joseph E. Brown, John B. Gordon
Succeeded by
Patrick Walsh
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