|Minister of Finance|
29 May 2015 – 22 June 2016
|Prime Minister||Juha Sipilä|
|Preceded by||Antti Rinne|
|Succeeded by||Petteri Orpo|
|Leader of the National Coalition Party|
14 June 2014 – 11 June 2016
|Preceded by||Jyrki Katainen|
|Succeeded by||Petteri Orpo|
|43rd Prime Minister of Finland|
24 June 2014 – 29 May 2015
|Preceded by||Jyrki Katainen|
|Succeeded by||Juha Sipilä|
|Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade|
22 June 2011 – 24 June 2014
|Prime Minister||Jyrki Katainen|
Astrid Thors (European Affairs)|
Paavo Väyrynen (Foreign Trade)
|Succeeded by||Lenita Toivakka|
|Minister for Foreign Affairs|
4 April 2008 – 22 June 2011
|Preceded by||Ilkka Kanerva|
|Succeeded by||Erkki Tuomioja|
Cai-Göran Alexander Stubb|
1 April 1968
|Political party||National Coalition Party|
College of Europe
London School of Economics
Cai-Göran Alexander Stubb (born 1 April 1968) is a Finnish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Finland from 2014 to 2015. He rose to politics as a researcher specialized in the affairs of the European Union and was elected to the European Parliament in 2004 as a member of the National Coalition Party. In 2008, Stubb was appointed as Minister for Foreign Affairs following a scandal surrounding his predecessor, Ilkka Kanerva. In 2011 Stubb stood for election to the Finnish Parliament for the first time and was elected MP with the second highest vote count in the election, which led to Stubb becoming the Minister for Europe and Foreign Trade in Jyrki Katainen's cabinet.
When Katainen stepped down as Prime Minister and Chairman of the National Coalition Party in 2014, Stubb was elected as party chairman. He went on to form a five party government coalition, and was officially appointed Prime Minister by President Sauli Niinistö on 24 June. In the election held in April 2015, Stubb's National Coalition Party lost its status as the largest party, coming in as second in vote share and third in seats. After coalition negotiations between the winning Center Party, Finns Party and National Coalition Party, Stubb was appointed Minister of Finance on 29 May 2015 by newly elected Prime Minister Juha Sipilä.
In 2016, Stubb's leadership was challenged from within the party by MP Elina Lepomäki and Minister of Interior Petteri Orpo. On June 11, Stubb lost the leadership election against Orpo in the party conference. After declining ministerial positions, Stubb went on to continue as a Member of Parliament. In June 2017, he was chosen as the Vice-President of the European Investment Bank, after the previous representative from Finland Jan Vapaavuori had vacated the seat.
Stubb was born in Helsinki into a bilingual family; his father was a native Swedish speaker and his mother a native Finnish speaker. Stubb spoke both languages at home. His father Göran Stubb worked in the business of professional ice hockey and was the CEO of the Finnish Ice Hockey Association from 1976 to 1983.
In 1986 Stubb graduated from Mainland High School in Daytona Beach, Florida and, two years later, graduated from the Gymnasiet Lärkan in Helsinki. After completing his military service, he won a golf scholarship to Furman University in South Carolina. At Furman, Stubb studied political science and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1993. The following year he studied French and obtained a Diploma in French Language and Civilisation from the Sorbonne in Paris. Stubb speaks five languages: Swedish, Finnish, English, French and German.
In 1995 Stubb graduated as a Master of Arts in European Affairs from the College of Europe, Belgium. He then studied for the degree of PhD in the International Relations Department at the London School of Economics and Political Science, under the supervision of William Wallace, and gained his doctorate in June 1999. Wallace later said: "LSE has had a number of extremely bright Finnish students in recent years – but Alex was one of the most outstanding." Stubb's thesis was called Flexible Integration and the Amsterdam Treaty: negotiating differentiation in the 1996–97 IGC.
From 1999 to 2001, Stubb was a researcher in Finland's representation to the European Union in Brussels, and a member of the Finnish government's delegation to the intergovernmental negotiations for the Treaty of Nice. In 2000, he became a professor at the College of Europe. Following the IGC's conclusion in 2001 he became an adviser to the President of the European Commission (then Romano Prodi) and a member of the Commission Task Force on the European Convention. In 2003 he returned to Finland's representation to the EU as a special expert and to the intergovernmental negotiations, this time for the European Constitution. When that ended in 2004, he stood for the National Coalition Party in the election to the European Parliament.
Wife and children
Stubb lived in Genval, Belgium, with his wife, Suzanne Innes-Stubb, who is a British lawyer, until they moved to Tapiola, Espoo. She works for the media group Sanoma. They have two children, a daughter named Emilie and a son called Oliver Johan.
A "confessed sports nut", Stubb regularly competes in marathons and triathlons and has finished Ironman Triathlons. In his 2012 Frankfurt Ironman, he competed with "Iron Birds Finland", a team of 18 people competing to support leukemia research. In Stockholm Ironman in 2013, Stubb's time was 9:55'47. Stubb ran his marathon record, 3:11:24, in the Berlin Marathon in 2014.
European Parliament (2004–2008)
Stubb served as an MEP for Finland from 2004 to 2008. He was elected in 2004 with 115,225 votes (the second highest number of votes in Finland for that election) as a member of the National Coalition Party. As that party was a member of the EPP, he sat in the European People's Party-European Democrats group. During this time he became one of the most well-known members of the Parliament.
Stubb was a member of the Committee on Budgetary Control and a vice-president of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection. He was a substitute member of the Committee on Constitutional Affairs and the Delegation to the EU-Turkey Joint Parliamentary Committee (as of August 2007).
In 2006 he wrote a report for the Parliament on the EU's interpretation costs, which was adopted by the Parliament. He called for greater awareness of the costs of translation, which he calculated as 511 million euros in 2005 for the Parliament, Commission and Council together. Despite the costs and the need for some changes, he underlined that multilingualism is one of the EU's main assets.
Stubb was Vice-President of European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights.
Minister for Foreign Affairs (2008–2011)
On 1 April 2008, Stubb's 40th birthday, the Finnish government announced that Stubb would be appointed as its new Minister for Foreign Affairs following a scandal surrounding his predecessor, Ilkka Kanerva. Stubb was sworn in on 4 April. The decision to appoint him was unanimous and his seat in the European Parliament was taken up by Sirpa Pietikäinen, a former environment minister.
In July 2010, Stubb invited the head of Al-Jazeera and former President Martti Ahtisaari to discuss about the role of media in conflict resolution. In October 2010, Stubb visited the Middle East and discussed the Middle Eastern conflict with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
In 2010 Stubb and Sweden’s Minister for Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt proposed the European Institute of Peace. They developed a joint non-paper that was addressed to EU High Representative Catherine Ashton. They referred to the limits of traditional diplomacy and emphasised the added value that capacities beyond those available to high-level decision-makers could have. At the same time, the idea of a European Institute of Peace gained increasing attention among members of the European Parliament (MEP) and was particularly supported by German MEP Franziska Brantner and French MEP Alain Lamassoure. The institute was founded in 2014.
In 2011 when Stubb was Foreign Minister, leaked diplomatic cables from the US embassy in Helsinki released by Wikileaks stated that Jori Arvonen, Senior Political Adviser to Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb, had predicted that the National Coalition Party would aspire to lead Finland to NATO during the next parliamentary term.
Stubb brought attention to issues of disabled people. In 2010 Stubb and Finnish sign language rapper Signmark - who had become the first deaf person to sign a recording contract with an international record company - worked together to organize Silent Shout event to support sign language speakers. Stubb and Signmark also later collaborated for bringing attention to disabled people in international forums.
Stubb does not believe the President of Finland needs to attend meetings of the European Council in addition to the Prime Minister. Jyrki Katainen, the Finnish Finance Minister and chairman of National Coalition Party, supported Stubb stating he was surprising, courageous and that he "puts a smile on one's face".
As the Foreign Minister of Finland, Stubb was the Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe from 5 April 2008 to 31 December 2008. The Russian-Georgian war occurred during this period, and OSCE brokered an agreement to send military observers to the area.
In January 2011 Stubb and EU Foreign Commissioner Catherine Ashton worked together to help hundreds of beaten and imprisoned opposition activists in Belarus.
Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade (2011–2014)
In 2011 Stubb stood for election to the Finnish Parliament for the first time and was elected MP. He was the second-most-popular candidate in the election, in which the National Coalition Party became the largest party. In the government negotiations the Foreign Affairs ministerial portfolio went to the Social Democrats. Stubb became Minister for Europe and Foreign Trade in Jyrki Katainen's cabinet.
During the crises in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine Stubb argued that money should be used as a force for good in geo-political relations, stating: "As I have said before, money is the best peace mediator“ and “Money should be given the Nobel Peace Prize”. (As Prime Minister he would later change his stance after further escalation in Eastern Ukraine, describing EU's sanctions against Russia necessary.) Stubb stated that the sanctions against Russia won't be removed until Russia has met the requirements set by the EU.
Prime Minister (2014–2015)
When Jyrki Katainen stepped down as Prime Minister and Chairman of the National Coalition Party, Stubb was elected as party chairman in June 2014 over his two rivals, Paula Risikko and Jan Vapaavuori. He formed a five party government coalition, and was officially appointed Prime Minister by President Niinistö on 24 June. One of the challenges the new Prime Minister faced is the relationship between Finland and neighboring Russia. This has always been a difficult issue for Finland, as it affects Finland's willingness to become a NATO member. The recent crisis in Ukraine as well as the dispute over free trade between Russia and Finland has made the issue thornier.
In March 2015, Stubb invited companies and officials to an event to discuss industrial Internet and Internet of Things.
In the election held in April 2015 Stubb's National Coalition Party lost its status as the largest party, coming in as second in vote share and third in seats. Coalition negotiations began on 8 May between the winning Center Party, Finns Party and National Coalition Party. He resigned from the office days after the election and left office on 29 May 2015.
Minister of Finance (2015–2016)
Stubb was appointed Minister of Finance on 29 May 2015 by newly elected Prime Minister Juha Sipilä. Stubb has demanded "structural reforms, structural reforms and more structural reforms". In November 2015, Stubb said at the Finnish Parliament that about 90 percent of the Finnish authoritatives supported introduction of administrative registration. However, it was revealed that in reality only about 10 percent of them supported it.
Stubb's term as Minister of Finance drew criticism due to his perceived insensitivity towards the effects of the spending cuts he introduced, which affected the Finnish welfare state and public education system. An instance of Stubb and Sipilä bumping fists after the end of a conference that announced a deal between Finnish trade unions and the Confederation of Finnish Industries was interpreted as a sign of mockery towards the trade unions.
Partly as a result of a series of Stubb's gaffes, such as insensitive tweets, in spring 2016, MP Elina Lepomäki and Minister of Interior Petteri Orpo announced that they would challenge Stubb in June's party conference. On June 11, Stubb lost the election against Orpo, who became the new leader of the National Coalition Party. Orpo soon announced that he would take Stubb's seat as the Minister of Finance. In return, he offered Stubb the role of Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade, but Stubb declined and decided to continue as a Member of Parliament.
On 15 June 2017, Stubb was chosen as the Vice-President of the European Investment Bank, after the previous representative from Finland Jan Vapaavuori had vacated the seat. He left his duties in the Parliament on 30 July 2017 in order to assume his new position. Stubb later commented that he had no interest in returning to the Finnish politics, but could be interested in running for the presidency of the European Commission or European Council.
In June 2017, Stubb was nominated by Martti Ahtisaari to assume the leadership of the Crisis Management Initiative, non-governmental organisation that works to prevent and resolve conflicts. His position was confirmed by the board on 29 November 2017.
Stubb is a proponent of deepening European integration. In 2008, when he was the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Stubb gave a speech, in which he argued in favour of the EU taking an active role in international politics. He noted that while the EU is the world's largest economy, it is not a superpower but a regional soft power. In 2014, when running for party leadership, he described himself as an "academic federalist", though "in practice a functionalist" with regard to the EU. Stubb, for example, opposes eurobonds. He also insisted that he is no longer the "pure federalist" that he used to be when he was a researcher. Stubb has expressed his support for Turkey's EU membership in 2010. Stubb believes Finland should apply for membership of NATO.
Stubb is seen as a representative of the National Coalition Party's liberal wing. He has characterized himself as a "liberal" and "moderate liberal". Stubb wants to bring about a "more positive way of doing politics". He believes everyone should be appreciated and respected even when there are disagreements. He supports same-sex marriage and has been the patron of Helsinki's Pride parade. He supports multiculturalism and believes that increasing immigration is necessary. Stubb believes that the most important political divide in modern politics is that between the supporters (like himself) and opponents of globalisation.
In November and December 2015, then Finance Minister Stubb was in the middle of a scandal when he was accused of lying to Finnish Parliament consistently and deliberately. In November, Stubb had said to Parliament that 90 percent of the experts who had given a statement were supporting the government's pact to make it possible for Finns to own publicly listed companies' stock through nominee accounts. The real number was 10 percent, opposite of what Stubb had said. One of the Members of Parliament who criticized Stubb was Eero Heinäluoma, who told that Stubb had lied to Parliament also in other issues deliberately several times
An active columnist, Stubb has stated that he has "always been of the opinion that matters must be discussed openly and honestly". Since his professorship at the College of Europe, Stubb has published 16 books, dozens of academic articles, and hundreds of columns. In 2016, Stubb started to write columns for Financial Times.
His book Alaston totuus ja muita kirjoituksia suomalaisista ja eurooppalaisista – The Naked Truth and other stories about Finns and Europeans (ISBN 9789510351758), a collection of his columns for the Finnair in-flight magazine Blue Wings, was published in a bilingual Finnish–English edition by WSOY in 2009.
European Parliament elections
- "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland - Ministers of Foreign Affairs". Valtioneuvosto.fi. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Alexander Stubb: Mokaamalla pärjää hyvin, Tamperelainen 29 April 2014, accessed 23 October 2014.
- Suomen jääkiekkomuseo: Jääkiekkoleijonat - Göran Stubb, Suomen jääkiekkomuseo
- LSE alumnus is made foreign minister of Finland Archived 2014-10-16 at the Wayback Machine., LSE, accessed 10 October 2014.
- CV « Alex Stubb
- "Alexander STUBB". European Parliament. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Alex's abridged CV". Alexander Stubb. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Personal details". Alexander Stubb. Archived from the original on 30 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "MEP Alexander Stubb to replace Ilkka Kanerva as Foreign Minister". Helsingin Sanomat. 2008-04-01. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- Tällainen on nainen tulevan pääministerin takana - "Hän kesytti naistenmiehen" - Kotimaan uutiset - Ilta-Sanomat
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- "How a Diplomatic Finn Trains for a Triathlon". Wall Street Journal. July 2, 2012.
- "Stubb huikean triathlon-suorituksen jälkeen: Iso olut ja iso sikari". mtv.fi.
- "Stubb paransi maraton-ennätystään - poseerasi me-miehen kanssa juoksun jälkeen". iltasanomat.fi. September 28, 2014.
- "Riley Institute's EU Conference Continues Today; Stubb to Present Closing Address". Furman University. Archived from the original on 2007-11-04. Retrieved 2007-08-28.
- "More awareness of translation costs. Alexander Stubb MEP". EPP-ED group. 2007-07-10. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Finland appoints gay rights campaigner as Foreign Minister". Pinknews.co.uk. April 3, 2008.
- "Finnish FM loses job over texts". BBC News. 2008-04-01. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- "Finnish Conservatives name Stubb foreign minister". new Room Finland. 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
- "Al-Jazeeran pääjohtaja, Ahtisaari ja Stubb pohtivat SuomiAreenassa median roolia konflikteissa". Finland.fi. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
- "Foreign Minister Stubb and Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt propose establishment of the European Institute of Peace". finlandcoe.fr.
- Brorsen, Peter. "European Institute of Peace costs, benefits and options" (PDF). franziska-brantner.eu.
- Krümpelmann, Stefan; Major, Claudia. "Enter the European Institute of Peace: Competing with or strengthening the European Union?" (PDF). swp-berlin.org.
- "Wikileaks: US Embassy Urged Finland To Join NATO". yle.fi.
- "Ulkoministeri Stubb ja Signmark esiintyivät yhdenvertaisuuden ja suvaitsevaisuuden puolesta New Yorkissa". Ulkoasiainministeriö. September 24, 2010.
- "Stubb nimesi Signmarkin erityisedustajakseen". Yle Uutiset. September 24, 2010.
- "Stubb ja Signmark: Vammaisilla on oikeudet". Ulkoasiainministeriö. February 2, 2011.
- "New Finnish Foreign Minister and OSCE Chairman to address Permanent Council on Thursday" (Press release). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 7 April 2008.
- "Stubb haluaa Valko-Venäjän oppositiojohtajan Suomeen". Helsingin Sanomat. January 17, 2011.
- "Hakattu oppositiojohtaja Nekljajev pääsi vankilasta Valko-Venäjällä". Helsingin Sanomat. January 29, 2011.
- "Stubb: Kansa puhui, Mubarak kuunteli". MTV Uutiset. February 11, 2011.
- Stubb: Russia’s economic dip could pose risk for Finland | Yle Uutiset | yle.fi
- Stubb varoittaa talouspakotteiden kierteestä – "Raha on maailman paras rauhanvälittäjä" - Suomen ja Venäjän suhteet - Politiikka - Helsingin Sanomat
- Helsingin Sanomat: Stubb pitää Venäjä-pakotteita välttämättöminä 29 July 2014, accessed 30 July 2014.
- "Stubb: Suohon itsensä ajanut Venäjä voi pelastautua lähtemällä Ukrainasta". hs.fi.
- "Cameron set for sweaty time in political sauna?". BBC. November 6, 2014.
- "Pääministeri järjestää korkean tason yrittäjyyskeskustelun Kesärannassa". March 23, 2015.
- "Kolmen ässän humppa – seuraa hallitusohjelmavääntöä Smolnassa hetki hetkeltä". Yle. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Council of State - Ministers of Finance". Valtioneuvosto.fi. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- MTV 3 (2016-02-04). "Seitsemän Uutiset".
- "Vain kymmenen prosenttia viranomaisista myönteisiä hallintarekisterille – ministeri Stubb puhui 90 prosentista". Helsingin Sanomat. 27 November 2015.
- MacDougall, David (18 May 2016). "Down and Out in Helsinki". Politico. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Annila, Silja (5 March 2016). "Poliitikkojen fist bump puhututtaa edelleen – pääministeri Sipilä puolusteli tervehdystä Ylen Ykkösaamussa". YleX (in Finnish). Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "Nyt se ratkesi – Stubb sivuun, Petteri Orpo on kokoomuksen uusi puheenjohtaja". Ilta-Sanomat. 11 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Orpo nappaa valtiovarainministerin salkun – Stubbin uudet tehtävät tarkentuvat myöhemmin". Yle. 11 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Stubb hylkäsi Orpon ministeritarjouksen". Helsingin sanomat. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Stubb lähtee pankinjohtajaksi Luxemburgiin – sattumalta: "Aina kun sitä vähiten odottaa, jotain tapahtuu"". Yle7. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- "Kansanedustaja Alexander Stubbille vapautus edustajantyöstä". Eduskunta. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "POLITICO's EU Confidential podcast: Alexander Stubb — Spitzenkandidat — MEP of the Week". Politico. 15 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- "Ahtisaari väistyy perustamansa CMI-järjestön johdosta, tilalle Alexander Stubb – "Muodollisesti olen jo eläkkeellä"". Helsingin Sanomat. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Stubb aloitti Ahtisaaren seuraajana villillä visiolla: "Rauhankoneen nimeksi tulee Martti"". Ilta-Sanomat. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- "Alexander Stubb's speech at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace" (PDF). 18 July 2008.
- Rehn ja Stubb kiistelivät, kuka mokasi, Helsingin Sanomat 20 May 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Stubb Ylellä: "tietty sinisilmäisyys EU:n suunnasta on kadonnut", Verkkouutiset 25 January 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Stubb ja Hague lämmittelevät EU:n suhteita Turkkiin, YLE 9 September 2010, accessed 3 October 2014
- Pääministeriksi pyrkivä Stubb: "Ilman muuta puhun Nato-jäsenyyden puolesta", YLE 30 April 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Tutkija Stubbin valinnasta: Parikymmentä vuotta sitten tuskin olisi mennyt näin, YLE 16 June 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Näkökulma: Nyt halutaan fantastinen pääministeri, Ilta-Sanomat 14 June 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Strasbourg : hävinneen päiväkirja, Suomen Kuvalehti 46/2005, accessed 3 October 2014.
- "Olen maltillinen liberaali" – lue Alexander Stubbin linjapuhe, Keskisuomalainen 15 June 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- "Finland to Grant Same-Sex Couples Full Marriage Rights". The Wall Street Journal. November 28, 2014.
- Alexander Stubb otti Pride-tapahtuman suojelukseensa, Vihreä Lanka 19 May 2010, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Stubb: Mamu-keskustelu on muuttunut vastenmieliseksi Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine., Magma 6 May 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- Stubb: Nämä aatteet korvasivat oikeiston ja vasemmiston, Verkkouutiset 30 September 2014, accessed 3 October 2014.
- "YLE Radio Suomi, Ajantasa, November 2, 2015".
- "Alexander Stubb CV". alexstubb.com. Retrieved 2015-03-27.
- "Alex the columnist". Alexander Stubb. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Stubb aloittaa Financial Timesin kolumnistina". Ilta-Sanomat. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Post-election lull in blog writing by political leaders". Helsingin Sanomat. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- "Stubb menetti Twitter-valtiaan paikan Viron presidentille". M&M. June 25, 2014.
- "Twiplomacy Study 2014". twiplomacy.com.
- WSOY press release (2009-04-02): Ulkoministeri Stubbin kolumnit koottiin kirjaksi Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.; WSOY online shop: Alaston totuus ja muita kirjoituksia suomalaisista ja eurooppalaisista Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Schwarzkopf Europe Award". schwarzkopf-stiftung.de. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- "Information Service". vaalit.fi. Ministry of Justice of Finland. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Stubb.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexander Stubb|
- Official website
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Stubb
- Personal profile of Alexander Stubb in the European Parliament's database of members
- Declaration (PDF) of financial interests (in Finnish)
| Minister for Foreign Affairs
as Minister for European Affairs
| Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade
as Minister for Foreign Trade
| Prime Minister of Finland
| Minister of Finance
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the National Coalition Party
| Covocation Speaker of the College of Europe