Adam in rabbinic literature
Talmud Readers by Adolf Behrman
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Allusions in rabbinic literature to the Biblical figure Adam, created according to the Book of Genesis by God in the Garden of Eden as the first man, expand and elaborate and draw inferences from what is presented in the text of the Bible itself.
In rabbinic literature
While the generic character that the name of Adam has in the older parts of Scripture, where it appears with the article ("the man"), was gradually lost sight of, his typical character as the representative of the unity of mankind was constantly emphasized (compare Talmud tractate Sanhedrin iv. 5; the correct reading in Tosef., Talmud tractate Sanhedrin viii. 4-9):
"Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, so no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, 'Our father was born first'; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation."
In a dispute, therefore, as to which Biblical verse expresses the fundamental principle of the Law, Simon ben 'Azzai maintained against Rabbi Akiba who, following Hillel the Elder, had singled out the Golden Rule (Leviticus 19:18)—that the principle of love must have as its basis Gen. 5:1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of him who was made in the image of God (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Genesis Rabba 24).
According to Targum Yer. to Genesis ii. 7, God took dust from the holy place (as "the center of the earth"; compare Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer xi., xx.) and the four parts of the world, mingling it with the water of all the seas, and made him red, black, and white (probably more correctly Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer xi. and Chronicles of Jerahmeel, vi. 7: "White, black, red, and green—bones and sinews white; intestines black; blood red; skin of body or liver green").
Rabbi Johanan interprets Adam's name as being an acrostic of (ashes), (blood), and (gall; see Soṭah, 5a). Rabbi Meir (2nd century) has the tradition that God made Adam of the dust gathered from the whole world; and Rab of the 3rd century says: "His head was made of earth from the Holy Land; his main body, from Babylonia; and the various members from different lands" (Talmud tractate Sanhedrin 38a et seq.; compare Genesis Rabba viii.; Midrash Tehilim cxxxix. 5; and Tan., Peḳude, 3, end).
Two Natures in Adam
There are, however, two points of view regarding man's nature presented in the two Biblical stories of man's creation; and they are brought out more forcibly in the Haggadah. "Both worlds, heaven and earth, were to have a share in man's creation; hence the host of angels were consulted by the Lord when He said, 'Let us make man'" (Genesis i. 26, Genesis Rabba viii.). His body reached from earth to heaven [or from one end of the world to the other] before sin caused him to sink" (Ḥag. 12a, Talmud tractate Sanhedrin 38b). "He was of extreme beauty and sunlike brightness" (B. B. 58a). "His skin was a bright garment, shining like his nails; when he sinned this brightness vanished, and he appeared naked" (Targum Yer. Gen. iii. 7; Genesis Rabba xi.). When God said: "Let us make man in our image," the angels in heaven, filled with jealousy, said: "What is man that Thou thinkest of him? A creature full of falsehood, hatred, and strife!" But Love pleaded in his favor; and the Lord spoke: "Let truth spring forth from the earth!" (Genesis Rabba viii.; Midrash Tehilim viii.).
A midrashic legend (Genesis Rabba viii.) relates that the angels were so filled with wonder and awe at the sight of Adam, the image of God, that they wanted to pay homage to him and cry "Holy!" But the Lord caused sleep to fall upon him so that he lay like a corpse, and the Lord said: "Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of?" (Isaiah ii. 22). Another version (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer xi.; Tan., Peḳude, 3) is that all other creatures, marveling at Adam's greatness, prostrated themselves before him, taking him to be their creator; whereon he pointed upward to God, exclaiming: "The Lord reigneth, He is clothed with majesty!" (Psalms xciii. 1).
Adam in paradise had angels to wait upon and dance before him (Talmud tractate Sanhedrin 59b, B. B. 75a, Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer xii.). He ate "angel's bread" (compare Psalms lxxiii. 26; Yoma, 75b). All creation bowed before him in awe. He was the light of the world (Yer. Shab. ii. 5b); but sin deprived him of all glory. The earth and the heavenly bodies lost their brightness, which will come back only in the Messianic time (Genesis Rabba xii. ; Zohar, iii. 83b). Death came upon Adam and all creation. God's day being a thousand years (Psalms xc. 4), Adam was permitted to live 930 years, 70 years less than one thousand (Genesis Rabba xix.), so that the statement "in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die" might be fulfilled. The brutes no longer stood in awe of man as their ruler; instead, they attacked him. But while sin was of fatal consequence, and the effect of the poison of the serpent is still felt by all following generations, unless they should be released from it by the covenant of Sinai (Talmud tractate Avoda Zorah, 22b).
The deadly effect of sin can be removed by repentance. Hence, Adam is represented as a type of a penitent sinner. Thus, he is described by the rabbis of the 2nd century ('Er. 18b; Talmud tractate Avoda Zorah, 8a; Ab. R. N. i.; Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer), as undergoing a terrible ordeal while fasting, praying, and bathing in the river for seven and forty days (seven weeks, Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer), or twice seven weeks—the shortening of the days after Tishri being taken by Adam as a sign of God's wrath, until after the winter solstice the days again grew longer, when he brought a sacrifice of thanksgiving. Another view is that when the sun rose the following morning he offered his thanksgiving, in which the angels joined him, singing the Sabbath Psalm (Psalms xcii.).
On account of the Sabbath the sun retained its brightness for the day; but as darkness set in Adam was seized with fear, thinking of his sin. Then the Lord taught him how to make fire by striking stones together. Thenceforth the fire is greeted with a blessing at the close of each Sabbath day (Pesiḳ. R. xxiii.; Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer xx.; similarly, Pes. 54a).
When Adam heard the curse, "Thou shalt eat of the herbs of the earth," he staggered, saying: "O Lord, must I and my ass eat out of the same manger?" Then the voice of God came reassuringly: "With the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread!" There is comfort in work. The angels taught Adam the work of agriculture, all the trades, and also how to work in iron (Genesis Rabba xxiv.; Pes. 54a). The invention of writing was ascribed to Adam.
Adam in the Future World
Adam was the first to receive the promise of resurrection (Genesis Rabba xxi. 7, after Psalms xvii. 15).
The Jewish view concerning Adam's sin is best expressed by Ammi (Shab. 55a, based upon Ezekiel xviii. 20): "No man dies without a sin of his own. Accordingly, all the pious, being permitted to behold the Shekinah (glory of God) before their death, reproach Adam (as they pass him by at the gate) for having brought death upon them; to which he replies: 'I died with but one sin, but you have committed many: on account of these you have died; not on my account'" (Tan., Ḥuḳḳat, 16).
To Adam are ascribed Psalms v., xix., xxiv., and xcii. (Midrash Tehilim v. 3; Genesis Rabba xxii., end; Pesiḳ. R. xlvi.; see Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 337 et seq.).
An idea of the rabbis was that "Adam was created from the dust of the place where the sanctuary was to rise for the atonement of all human sin," so that sin should never be a permanent or inherent part of man's nature (Genesis Rabba xiv., Yer. Naz. vii. 56b).