Abu Sa'id Gardezi

Abu Saʿīd Abdul-Hay ibn Dhaḥḥāk ibn Maḥmūd Gardēzī, Gardīzī or Gurdēzī (died c. 1061 CE) (Persian: ابوسعید عبدالحی بن ضحاک بن محمود گردیزی) was a Persian[1] Muslim geographer and historian of the early 11th century from Gardēz in modern Afghanistan.[2] He wrote the book Zayn al-Akhbār while at the court of Abdul-Rashid, sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire.[3] Gardēzī's work, written in Persian, is an Islamic history of Central Asia and Eastern Persia and Hungary.


In his Zayn al-akbar, Gardīzī took a dispassionate view of history which was fairly remarkable for its time.[4] It consisted of a history of the pre-Islamic kings of Persia, Muhammad and the Caliphs until the year 1032. Included is a history of the Arab invasion of Khurasan, which it is believed Gardizi was using al-Sallami as a source. His history concerning the Turks was written using Ibn Khordadbeh, al-Djayhani and Ibn al-Mukaffa as sources.[5] He may have been a student of al-Biruni, since the Zayn al-akbar contains information concerning Indian festivals.[5] His style of Persian is simple but mature and provides one of the classical examples of Persian prose-writing. A critical edition was published by ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī, Tehran, 1347 Š./1968 under the title of "Tarikh-e Gardizi".

See also


  1. Bosworth, C. Edmund. "GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 2 December 2016. GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century.
  2. Gardizi, W. Barthold, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol.II, ed. B. Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1991), p. 978.
  3. Historiography in the Sadduzai Era:Language and Narration, Senzil Nawid, Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order, ed. Brian Spooner and William Hanaway, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 235.
  4. "GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY GARDĪZĪ,ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd in Encyclopedia Iranica by C. EDMUND BOSWORTH
  5. 1 2 Gardizi, W. Barthold, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol.II, p. 978.
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