Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H22FNO
Molar mass 359.44 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
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AM-2201 (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is a recreational designer drug that acts as a potent but nonselective full agonist for the cannabinoid receptor.[1] It is part of the AM series of cannabinoids discovered by Alexandros Makriyannis at Northeastern University.


Convulsions have been reported[2] including at doses as low as 10 mg.[3]

Recreational use of AM-2201 in the United States has led to it being specifically listed in a proposed 2011 amendment to the Controlled Substances Act, aiming to add a number of synthetic drugs into Schedule I.[4] The acute toxicity and long term side effects associated with the use of AM-2201 are acute kidney failure, brain damage, strokes, convulsions, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, and death.[5][6][7][8][9]


AM-2201 is a full agonist for cannabinoid receptors. Affinities are: with a Ki of 1.0 nM at CB1 and 2.6 nM at CB2.[10] The 4-methyl functional analog MAM-2201 probably has similar affinities. AM-2201 has an EC50 of 38 nM for human CB1 receptors, and 58 nM for human CB2 receptors.[11] AM-2201 produces bradycardia and hypothermia in rats at doses of 0.3–3 mg/kg, comparable to the potency of JWH-018 in rats, suggesting potent cannabinoid-like activity.[11]


AM-2201 metabolism differs only slightly from that of JWH-018. AM-2201 N-dealkylation produces fluoropentane instead of pentane (or plain alkanes in general).


A forensic standard of AM-2201 is available, and the compound has been posted on the Forendex website of potential drugs of abuse.[12]

See also


  1. Wilkinson, S. M.; Banister, S. D.; Kassiou, M. (2015). "Bioisosteric Fluorine in the Clandestine Design of Synthetic Cannabinoids". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 68 (1): 4–8. doi:10.1071/CH14198.
  2. David McQuade; Simon Hudson; Paul I. Dargan; David M. Wood (March 2013). "First European case of convulsions related to analytically confirmed use of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist AM-2201". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 69 (3): 373–376. doi:10.1007/s00228-012-1379-2. PMID 22936123.
  3. ekaJ (20 February 2011). "The Night I Killed My Friends". Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  4. Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011. H.R. 1254, 112th Congress, 1st Session (2011).
  5. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoid Use, Multiple States, 2012. CDC morbitidy and mortality weekly report 2012.
  6. Forbes Synthetic Marijuana May Cause Psychosis, Brain and Kidney Damage. Forbes report, Synthetic Marijuana Linked to Psychosis, Brain, and Kidney Damage. 2013
  7. Dante Durand; Leticia L. Delgado; Dhizarah Matus de la Parra-Pellot; Diana Nichols-Vinueza (January 2015). "Psychosis and Severe Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoid Use". Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses. 8 (4): 205–208. doi:10.3371/CSRP.DUDE.031513. PMID 23518784.
  8. Bowling Green Daily News Report 2011. Bowling Green Daily News Report, 2011
  9. Report 2013. Website, 2013
  10. WO patent 0128557, Makriyannis A, Deng H, "Cannabimimetic indole derivatives", granted 2001-06-07
  11. 1 2 Banister, S. D.; Stuart, J.; Kevin, R. C.; Edington, A.; Longworth, M.; Wilkinson, S. M.; Beinat, C.; Buchanan, A. S.; Hibbs, D. E.; Glass, M.; Connor, M.; McGregor, I. S.; Kassiou, M. (August 2015). "Effects of Bioisosteric Fluorine in Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, APICA, and STS-135". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 6 (8): 1445–1458. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00107. PMID 25921407.
  12. Southern Association of Forensic Scientists
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