AL-LAD

AL-LAD
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: Class A
  • Illegal in Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H27N3O
Molar mass 349.4713 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 NY (what is this?)  (verify)

AL-LAD, also known as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, is a psychedelic drug and an analog of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).[1] It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL (Tryptamines i Have Known And Loved). It is synthesized starting from nor-LSD as a precursor, using allyl bromide as a reactant.

Effects in humans

While AL-LAD has subtly different effects than LSD, and appears to be slightly shorter lasting, their potencies are similar;[2][3] an active dose of AL-LAD is reported to be between 50 and 150 micrograms.[4] AL-LAD has a known but short and highly uncommon history of recreational human use, which originated in Ireland and the UK, but spread internationally.

Chemistry

AL-LAD does not cause a color change with the Marquis, Mecke or Mandelin reagents,[5] but does cause the Ehrlich's reagent to turn purple because of the presence of the indole moiety in its structure.

AL-LAD is not scheduled by the United Nations' Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[6]

Denmark

AL-LAD is illegal in Denmark.[7]

Latvia

AL-LAD is possibly illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't specifically scheduled, it may be controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015.[8]

Sweden

The Riksdag added AL-LAD to Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act under swedish schedule I ("substances, plant materials and fungi which normally do not have medical use" ) as of January 26, 2016, published by Medical Products Agency (MPA) in regulation HSLF-FS 2015:35 listed as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, AL-LAD, and 6-allyl-N,N-dietyl-9,10-didehydroergolin-8-karboxamid.[9]

Switzerland

AL-LAD is illegal in Switzerland.[10]

United Kingdom

AL-LAD is illegal in the UK. On June 10, 2014 the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) recommended that AL-LAD be specifically named in the UK Misuse of Drugs Act as a class A drug despite not identifying any harm associated with its use.[11] The UK Home office accepted this advice and announced a ban of the substance to be enacted on 6 January 2015 as part of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) (No. 2) Order 2014.

United States

AL-LAD is not scheduled as a controlled substance at the federal level in the United States,[12] but AL-LAD could legally be considered an analog of LSD, in which case, sales or possession with intent for human consumption could be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act.[13]

See also

References

  1. Simon D. Brandt; Pierce V. Kavanagh; Folker Westphal; Simon P. Elliott; Jason Wallach; Tristan Colestock; Timothy E. Burrow; Stephen J. Chapman; Alexander Stratford; David E. Nichols; Adam L. Halberstadt (June 2016). "Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD) and (2'S,4'S)-lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ)". Drug Testing and Analysis. doi:10.1002/dta.1985. PMID 27265891.
  2. Fabrizio Schifano; Laura Orsolini; Duccio Papanti; John Corkery (June 2016). "NPS: Medical Consequences Associated with Their Intake". Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–30. doi:10.1007/7854_2016_15. ISSN 1866-3370. OCLC 643052237. PMID 27272067.
  3. Hoffman AJ, Nichols DE; Nichols (September 1985). "Synthesis and LSD-like discriminative stimulus properties in a series of N(6)-alkyl norlysergic acid N,N-diethylamide derivatives". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 28 (9): 1252–5. doi:10.1021/jm00147a022. PMID 4032428.
  4. Shulgin, Alexander (1997). TiHKAL: The Continuation. Berkeley, California: Transform Press. p. 392. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9. Archived from the original on 2015-11-18.
  5. Ecstasydata. "EcstasyData.org - AL-LAD (Not sold as ecstasy)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
  6. simone.rupprich. "Conventions". www.unodc.org. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. "Lists of euphoriant substances". The Danish Medicines Agency. September 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-06-09.
  8. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem". LIKUMI.LV. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-31. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
  10. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Der Bundesrat. Archived from the original on 2016-01-23.
  11. ACMD (10 June 2014). "Update of the Generic Definition for Tryptamines" (PDF). UK Home Office. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  12. "PART 1308 - Section 1308.11 Schedule I". www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  13. "Erowid Analog Law Vault : Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Act Summary". www.erowid.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.

Additional literature

  • Watts, V. J.; Mailman, R. B.; Lawler, C. P.; Neve, K. A.; Nichols, D. E. (1995). "LSD and structural analogs: Pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors". Psychopharmacology. 118 (4): 401–9. doi:10.1007/BF02245940. PMID 7568626. 
  • Niwaguchi, T; Nakahara, Y; Ishii, H (1976). "Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide and related compounds. IV. Syntheses of various amide derivatives of norlysergic acid and related compounds". Yakugaku Zasshi. 96 (5): 673–8. PMID 987200. 
  • Robert C. Pfaff, Xuemei Huang, Danuta Marona-Lewicka, Robert Oberlender and David E. Nichols: Lysergamides Revisited. In: NIDA Research Monograph 146: Hallucinogens: An Update. p. 52, 1994, United States Department of Health and Human Services.
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