1991 AFL season

1991 AFL premiership season
Teams 15
Premiers Hawthorn
(9th premiership)
Minor premiers West Coast
(1st minor premiership)
Pre-season cup Hawthorn
(1st pre-season cup win)
Matches played 172
Attendance 4,178,884 (24,296 per match)
Highest attendance 75,230 (Grand Final, Hawthorn v West Coast)
Coleman Medallist Tony Lockett (St Kilda)
Brownlow Medallist Jim Stynes (Melbourne)
1990
1992

The 1991 Australian Football League season was the 95th season of the elite Australian rules football competition.

Foster's Cup

Hawthorn defeated North Melbourne 14.19 (103) to 7.12 (54). (For an explanation of scoring see Australian rules football).

Premiership season

Due to the admission of the Adelaide Crows, there were 15 teams (an odd number) in the league, requiring byes for the first time since 1943.

Each team played 22 games for the season with two byes: seven teams had a bye in round 1, and one team had a bye in each subsequent week.

Round 1

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Adelaide24.11 (155)Hawthorn9.15 (69)Football Park44,902Friday 22, March
St Kilda16.11 (107)Richmond12.10 (82)Waverley Park33,192Saturday 23, March
Footscray11.10 (76)Collingwood21.20 (146)Waverley Park38,861Sunday 24, March
West Coast14.15 (99)Melbourne2.8 (20)Subiaco Oval26,105Sunday 24, March

Round 2

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Collingwood8.10 (58)West Coast13.7 (85)Waverley Park39,266Saturday 30, March
Fitzroy6.13 (49)Melbourne27.18 (180)Princes Park11,278Saturday 30, March
Brisbane Bears8.10 (58)North Melbourne15.14 (104)Carrara Stadium5,724Saturday 30, March
Adelaide12.9 (81)Carlton15.14 (104)Football Park43,850Sunday 31, March
Richmond17.7 (109)Essendon16.17 (113)MCG31,793Monday 1, April
Geelong18.22 (130)St Kilda16.8 (104)Kardinia Park26,303Monday 1, April
Hawthorn25.16 (166)Sydney10.15 (75)Princes Park13,815Monday 1, April

Round 3

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Carlton18.19 (127)Brisbane Bears9.16 (70)Princes Park16,651Saturday 6, April
Collingwood16.21 (117)Fitzroy8.10 (58)Victoria Park24,691Saturday 6, April
North Melbourne13.16 (94)Essendon25.17 (167)MCG24,961Saturday 6, April
Hawthorn20.16 (136)Richmond11.13 (79)Waverley Park25,960Saturday 6, April
Footscray10.8 (68)Geelong15.27 (117)Whitten Oval20,875Sunday 7, April
Melbourne21.19 (145)St Kilda24.10 (154)MCG27,266Sunday 7, April
Sydney15.18 (108)Adelaide19.18 (132)SCG10,649Sunday 7, April

Round 4

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
West Coast18.19 (127)North Melbourne8.7 (55)WACA28,362Friday 12, April
Melbourne23.17 (155)Carlton17.8 (110)Waverley Park32,573Saturday 13, April
St Kilda13.16 (94)Collingwood13.16 (94)Moorabbin Oval31,213Saturday 13, April
Essendon12.20 (92)Adelaide6.11 (47)Windy Hill20,197Saturday 13, April
Fitzroy12.18 (90)Footscray15.16 (106)Princes Park10,351Saturday 13, April
Richmond19.13 (127)Sydney24.20 (164)MCG17,294Saturday 13, April
Brisbane Bears12.16 (88)Geelong27.28 (190)Gabba12,654Sunday 14, April

Round 5

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Sydney19.16 (130)Essendon24.17 (161)SCG13,140Friday 19, April
Collingwood16.19 (115)Brisbane Bears14.9 (93)Victoria Park20,403Saturday 20, April
Fitzroy12.17 (89)Richmond16.17 (113)Princes Park12,124Saturday 20, April
Footscray17.16 (118)Hawthorn16.11 (107)Waverley Park21,448Saturday 20, April
Melbourne28.14 (182)North Melbourne17.10 (112)MCG22,928Saturday 20, April
Geelong13.17 (95)Carlton8.10 (58)Kardinia Park27,365Sunday 21, April
West Coast19.16 (130)Adelaide9.11 (65)Subiaco Oval34,704Sunday 21, April

Round 6

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Collingwood10.17 (77)Melbourne17.11 (113)Waverley Park55,735Thursday 25, April
North Melbourne27.26 (188)Sydney21.8 (134)MCG15,664Thursday 25, April
Carlton13.16 (94)St Kilda7.18 (60)Princes Park29,005Saturday 27, April
Geelong13.11 (89)West Coast19.20 (134)Waverley Park33,905Saturday 27, April
Brisbane Bears12.11 (83)Essendon16.18 (114)Carrara Stadium9,253Saturday 27, April
Fitzroy11.8 (74)Hawthorn36.15 (231)North Hobart Oval13,335Sunday 28, April
Adelaide19.14 (128)Footscray14.13 (97)Football Park36,695Sunday 28, April

Round 7

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
North Melbourne21.15 (141)Fitzroy14.13 (97)MCG13,111Friday 3, May
Essendon17.13 (115)Carlton13.16 (94)Waverley Park47,651Saturday 4, May
Hawthorn8.14 (62)West Coast21.18 (144)Princes Park18,585Saturday 4, May
Melbourne18.18 (126)Brisbane Bears17.11 (113)MCG14,722Saturday 4, May
St Kilda24.18 (162)Adelaide4.7 (31)Moorabbin Oval25,057Saturday 4, May
Footscray20.13 (133)Richmond14.17 (101)Whitten Oval18,644Sunday 5, May
Sydney20.24 (144)Geelong14.14 (98)SCG11,244Sunday 5, May

Round 8

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Hawthorn18.14 (122)Carlton11.12 (78)Waverley Park29,727Saturday 11, May
Essendon13.9 (87)West Coast14.10 (94)Windy Hill21,438Saturday 11, May
Fitzroy10.10 (70)Sydney21.21 (147)Princes Park7,416Saturday 11, May
Melbourne17.19 (121)Footscray12.10 (82)MCG23,617Saturday 11, May
Geelong17.17 (119)North Melbourne22.18 (150)Kardinia Park17,746Saturday 11, May
Richmond24.15 (159)Collingwood15.12 (102)MCG28,322Sunday 12, May
Brisbane Bears12.7 (79)St Kilda21.22 (148)Gabba9,828Sunday 12, May

Round 9

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
North Melbourne18.12 (120)Adelaide18.10 (118)MCG16,175Friday 17, May
Carlton13.15 (93)Richmond12.9 (81)Princes Park23,087Saturday 18, May
Collingwood13.12 (90)Geelong18.24 (132)Victoria Park26,262Saturday 18, May
Hawthorn15.13 (103)Essendon13.9 (87)Waverley Park40,537Saturday 18, May
Footscray15.11 (101)Brisbane Bears14.12 (96)Whitten Oval10,585Saturday 18, May
West Coast17.23 (125)Fitzroy3.8 (26)Subiaco Oval23,586Sunday 19, May
Sydney16.17 (113)St Kilda18.11 (119)SCG13,284Sunday 19, May

Round 10

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Adelaide15.16 (106)Melbourne10.12 (72)Football Park43,722Friday 24, May
Collingwood16.12 (108)Hawthorn23.13 (151)Waverley Park45,595Saturday 25, May
St Kilda11.15 (81)Essendon16.13 (109)Moorabbin Oval33,832Saturday 25, May
Fitzroy19.13 (127)Geelong14.22 (106)Princes Park10,214Saturday 25, May
North Melbourne21.15 (141)Footscray18.19 (127)MCG17,254Saturday 25, May
Brisbane Bears10.15 (75)Richmond12.10 (82)Carrara Stadium7,330Sunday 26, May
West Coast15.16 (106)Sydney10.12 (72)Subiaco Oval33,498Sunday 26, May

Round 11

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
North Melbourne18.22 (130)Collingwood17.12 (114)MCG28,299Saturday 1, June
Essendon12.14 (86)Melbourne12.8 (80)Windy Hill21,635Saturday 1, June
Geelong27.15 (177)Adelaide14.9 (93)Kardinia Park17,644Saturday 1, June
Hawthorn10.17 (77)St Kilda15.13 (103)Princes Park20,832Saturday 1, June
Richmond12.8 (80)West Coast17.15 (117)Waverley Park15,476Saturday 1, June
Footscray8.9 (57)Carlton1.10 (16)Whitten Oval16,036Sunday 2, June
Sydney18.13 (121)Brisbane Bears26.12 (168)SCG7,657Sunday 2, June

Round 12

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Carlton12.10 (82)Collingwood10.2 (62)Waverley Park39,832Saturday 8, June
Footscray4.11 (35)Sydney5.5 (35)Whitten Oval11,236Saturday 8, June
Brisbane Bears14.9 (93)West Coast21.19 (145)Carrara Stadium5,728Sunday 9, June
Adelaide7.8 (50)Fitzroy7.5 (47)Football Park31,273Sunday 9, June
Hawthorn13.18 (96)Geelong20.16 (136)Princes Park23,123Monday 10, June
Melbourne13.12 (90)Richmond14.12 (96)MCG29,415Monday 10, June
St Kilda15.11 (101)North Melbourne8.18 (66)Moorabbin Oval31,242Monday 10, June

Round 13

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
West Coast25.15 (165)Footscray7.5 (47)WACA25,117Friday 14, June
Essendon10.14 (74)Collingwood11.10 (76)Waverley Park41,948Saturday 15, June
Hawthorn22.17 (149)Brisbane Bears9.8 (62)Princes Park5,741Saturday 15, June
Richmond6.11 (47)Adelaide12.13 (85)MCG16,235Saturday 15, June
Sydney18.16 (124)Carlton17.8 (110)SCG12,769Sunday 16, June
Fitzroy15.8 (98)St Kilda17.9 (111)North Hobart Oval13,746Sunday 16, June
Melbourne16.8 (104)Geelong20.14 (134)MCG40,930Sunday 16, June

Round 14

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Richmond19.14 (128)North Melbourne26.16 (172)MCG23,353Friday 21, June
Carlton12.11 (83)West Coast11.14 (80)Princes Park19,588Saturday 22, June
Collingwood20.23 (143)Sydney6.8 (44)Victoria Park22,332Saturday 22, June
Essendon17.20 (122)Fitzroy12.11 (83)Windy Hill16,519Saturday 22, June
St Kilda16.6 (102)Footscray8.21 (69)Moorabbin Oval23,963Saturday 22, June
Melbourne11.11 (77)Hawthorn19.13 (127)Waverley Park30,664Saturday 22, June
Adelaide23.18 (156)Brisbane Bears13.12 (90)Football Park35,355Sunday 23, June

Round 15

Round 15
Friday, 28 June (7:40 pm) North Melbourne 18.7 (115) def. by Hawthorn 27.17 (179) MCG (crowd: 25,819)
Saturday, 29 June (2:10 pm) Collingwood 23.22 (160) def. Adelaide 5.7 (37) Victoria Park (crowd: 25,164)
Saturday, 29 June (2:10 pm) Fitzroy 6.5 (41) def. by Carlton 8.12 (60) Princes Park (crowd: 15,147)
Saturday, 29 June (2:10 pm) Footscray 11.23 (89) def. Essendon 6.7 (43) Western Oval (crowd: 17,536)
Saturday, 29 June (2:10 pm) Geelong 19.17 (131) def. Richmond 14.14 (98) Waverley Park (crowd: 22,688)
Sunday, 30 June (2:10 pm) Sydney 14.10 (94) def. by Melbourne 26.21 (177) SCG (crowd: 10,569)
Sunday, 30 June (2:10 pm) West Coast 21.11 (137) def. St Kilda 14.9 (93) Subiaco Oval (crowd: 42,255)
Bye: Brisbane Bears

Round 16

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Carlton14.5 (89)North Melbourne13.17 (95)Princes Park23,191Saturday 6, July
Collingwood20.13 (133)Footscray13.2 (80)Victoria Park27,757Saturday 6, July
Hawthorn23.20 (158)Adelaide14.11 (95)Waverley Park21,715Saturday 6, July
Melbourne11.10 (76)West Coast14.16 (100)MCG25,799Saturday 6, July
Geelong13.21 (99)Essendon10.15 (75)Kardinia Park31,096Sunday 7, July
Brisbane Bears26.14 (170)Fitzroy15.15 (105)Gabba7,373Sunday 7, July
Richmond13.18 (96)St Kilda18.16 (124)MCG32,782Sunday 7, July

Round 17

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
West Coast20.15 (135)Collingwood8.6 (54)WACA30,715Friday 12, July
Carlton6.12 (48)Adelaide7.13 (55)Princes Park13,509Saturday 13, July
Essendon6.7 (43)Richmond7.18 (60)Windy Hill13,501Saturday 13, July
Melbourne12.20 (92)Fitzroy7.13 (55)MCG12,710Saturday 13, July
St Kilda9.13 (67)Geelong18.8 (116)Moorabbin Oval28,789Saturday 13, July
North Melbourne15.13 (103)Brisbane Bears14.6 (90)Waverley Park7,239Saturday 13, July
Sydney14.19 (103)Hawthorn15.24 (114)SCG12,143Sunday 14, July

Round 18

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Fitzroy15.21 (111)Collingwood18.16 (124)Princes Park14,129Saturday 20, July
Essendon19.9 (123)North Melbourne5.19 (49)Windy Hill19,322Saturday 20, July
Richmond13.10 (88)Hawthorn13.16 (94)Waverley Park24,731Saturday 20, July
St Kilda16.14 (110)Melbourne17.9 (111)Moorabbin Oval24,950Saturday 20, July
Brisbane Bears14.16 (100)Carlton12.21 (93)Carrara Stadium9,735Sunday 21, July
Geelong20.16 (136)Footscray10.8 (68)Kardinia Park22,145Sunday 21, July
Adelaide16.22 (118)Sydney19.8 (122)Football Park40,794Sunday 21, July

Round 19

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
North Melbourne12.13 (85)West Coast11.16 (82)MCG19,399Friday 26, July
Carlton10.8 (68)Melbourne11.14 (80)Princes Park16,110Saturday 27, July
Collingwood13.7 (85)St Kilda7.11 (53)Waverley Park53,315Saturday 27, July
Footscray16.12 (108)Fitzroy7.9 (51)Whitten Oval8,977Saturday 27, July
Geelong24.15 (159)Brisbane Bears8.10 (58)Kardinia Park13,639Saturday 27, July
Sydney14.15 (99)Richmond12.20 (92)SCG9,276Sunday 28, July
Adelaide16.12 (108)Essendon12.9 (81)Football Park41,716Sunday 28, July

Round 20

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Carlton16.9 (105)Geelong14.19 (103)Princes Park20,277Saturday 3, August
Essendon22.19 (151)Sydney12.12 (84)Windy Hill14,341Saturday 3, August
Hawthorn12.11 (83)Footscray10.9 (69)Waverley Park20,670Saturday 3, August
North Melbourne13.10 (88)Melbourne20.20 (140)MCG28,323Saturday 3, August
Brisbane Bears10.11 (71)Collingwood26.16 (172)Carrara Stadium9,302Saturday 3, August
Richmond13.19 (97)Fitzroy23.18 (156)MCG16,434Sunday 4, August
Adelaide11.14 (80)West Coast14.11 (95)Football Park45,864Sunday 4, August

Round 21

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
West Coast11.16 (82)Geelong12.9 (81)WACA30,987Friday 9, August
St Kilda23.17 (155)Carlton15.11 (101)Waverley Park32,615Saturday 10, August
Melbourne8.7 (55)Collingwood19.13 (127)MCG50,085Saturday 10, August
Essendon23.19 (157)Brisbane Bears17.10 (112)Windy Hill12,970Saturday 10, August
Hawthorn28.27 (195)Fitzroy10.9 (69)Princes Park11,500Saturday 10, August
Footscray8.16 (64)Adelaide6.4 (40)Whitten Oval11,452Saturday 10, August
Sydney13.22 (100)North Melbourne20.16 (136)SCG13,252Sunday 11, August

Round 22

Round 22
Friday, 16 August (7:40 pm) Adelaide 12.9 (81) def. by St Kilda 20.12 (132) Football Park (crowd: 45,440)
Saturday, 17 August (2:10 pm) Carlton 12.12 (84) def. by Essendon 13.10 (88) Waverley Park (crowd: 34,588)
Saturday, 17 August (2:10 pm) Fitzroy 22.16 (148) def. North Melbourne 21.21 (147) Princes Park (crowd: 8,588)
Saturday, 17 August (2:10 pm) Richmond 14.11 (95) def. Footscray 11.12 (78) MCG (crowd: 15,466)
Saturday, 17 August (2:10 pm) Geelong 17.13 (115) def. Sydney 13.10 (88) Kardinia Park (crowd: 17,755)
Sunday, 18 August (2:10 pm) Brisbane Bears 13.13 (91) def. by Melbourne 15.13 (103) Gabba (crowd: 6,480)
Sunday, 18 August (2:10 pm) West Coast 15.9 (99) def. Hawthorn 11.9 (75) Subiaco Oval (crowd: 35,001)
Bye: Collingwood

Round 23

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Sydney21.14 (140)Fitzroy13.16 (94)SCG8,553Friday 23, August
Carlton8.10 (58)Hawthorn23.18 (156)Princes Park18,521Saturday 24, August
Collingwood18.18 (126)Richmond14.9 (93)Victoria Park29,541Saturday 24, August
North Melbourne8.10 (58)Geelong13.12 (90)Waverley Park26,445Saturday 24, August
St Kilda27.12 (174)Brisbane Bears7.12 (54)Moorabbin Oval16,364Saturday 24, August
West Coast16.19 (115)Essendon7.10 (52)Subiaco Oval38,990Sunday 25, August
Footscray6.9 (45)Melbourne8.8 (56)Whitten Oval16,380Sunday 25, August

Round 24

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Richmond20.18 (138)Carlton18.15 (123)MCG21,854Saturday 31, August
Geelong16.11 (107)Collingwood8.18 (66)Kardinia Park28,491Saturday 31, August
Essendon9.9 (63)Hawthorn21.17 (143)Waverley Park48,311Saturday 31, August
Fitzroy14.15 (99)West Coast12.17 (89)Princes Park7,308Saturday 31, August
St Kilda24.14 (158)Sydney17.17 (119)Moorabbin Oval24,106Saturday 31, August
Brisbane Bears8.14 (62)Footscray14.14 (98)Carrara Stadium4,721Saturday 31, August
Adelaide28.12 (180)North Melbourne16.11 (107)Football Park36,220Sunday 1, September

Finals Series

Elimination Finals

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Melbourne17.11 (113)Essendon11.9 (75)Waverley Park46,032Saturday 7, September
Geelong15.14 (104)St Kilda14.13 (97)Waverley Park63,796Sunday 8, September

Qualifying Final

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
West Coast15.11 (101)Hawthorn18.16 (124)Subiaco Oval44,142Sunday 8, September

Semi finals

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Hawthorn13.17 (95)Geelong13.15 (93)Waverley Park63,733Saturday 14, September
West Coast17.15 (117)Melbourne12.7 (79)Waverley Park41,136Sunday 15, September

Preliminary Final

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Geelong8.16 (64)West Coast11.13 (79)Waverley Park47,638Saturday 21, September

Grand final

Home team Home team score Away team Away team score Ground Crowd Date
Hawthorn20.19 (139)West Coast13.8 (86)Waverley Park75,230Saturday 28, September

Ladder

All teams played 22 games during the home and away season, for a total of 165. An additional 7 games were played during the finals series.

A team based in the state of South Australia, christened the "Adelaide Crows" after the epithet bestowed upon those from South Australia by those living in other Australian states (viz., the "crow eaters") was admitted to the AFL competition in 1991.

1991 AFL Ladder
TeamPWLDPFPA%Pts
1 West Coast 22 19 3 0 2485 1532 162.21 76
2 Hawthorn (P) 22 16 6 0 2793 2055 135.91 64
3 Geelong 22 16 6 0 2660 2021 131.62 64
4 St Kilda 22 14 7 1 2512 2087 120.36 58
5 Melbourne 22 13 9 0 2355 2123 110.93 52
6 Essendon 22 13 9 0 2203 2017 109.22 52
7 Collingwood 22 12 9 1 2349 2033 115.54 50
8 North Melbourne 22 12 10 0 2456 2693 91.20 48
9 Adelaide 22 10 12 0 2041 2282 89.44 40
10 Footscray 22 9 12 1 1815 2064 87.94 38
11 Carlton 22 8 14 0 1878 2113 88.88 32
12 Sydney 22 7 14 1 2360 2778 84.95 30
13 Richmond 22 7 15 0 2141 2450 87.39 28
14 Fitzroy 22 4 18 0 1837 2771 66.29 16
15 Brisbane Bears 22 3 19 0 1976 2842 69.53 12
Key: P = Played, W = Won, L = Lost, D = Drawn, PF = Points for, PA = Points against

Match attendance

Total match attendance for the home-and-away season was 3,810,868 people. Total attendance for the finals series was 381,707 people. Attendance at the Grand Final was 75,230 people. The largest non-finals attendance was 55,735 people for the Collingwood v Melbourne game of Round 6.

Awards

Notable events

  • The Adelaide Crows entered the AFL competition.
  • The McIntyre "Final Five" system, which had operated from 1972 until 1991, was replaced by the First McIntyre "Final Six" system. This system lasted only this season, and it was replaced by the Second McIntyre "Final Six" system in 1992.
  • In round 6, North Melbourne and Sydney kicked 32.18 (210) in the first half. It is the only aggregate of 200 points for a half in VFL/AFL history.
  • In round 11, Carlton kicked its only goal through Mark Arceri 33 seconds from the end of their match with Footscray. It was the Blues' lowest score since 1904, and the closest a team has come to a goalless match since 1961.
  • In round 21, Essendon hosted its last senior VFL/AFL match at Windy Hill—its home venue since 1922. Essendon played its home matches at the Melbourne Cricket Ground for the remainder of the 1990s.
  • West Coast did not concede more than 100 points in any game during the home-and-away season, being the first team to do this since 1967.
  • The qualifying final at Subiaco Oval between West Coast and Hawthorn was the first finals match played outside Melbourne since 1897, when one finals match was played in Geelong; it was the first final ever played outside Victoria.
  • The capacity of the Melbourne Cricket Ground was reduced by half during 1991 as the new Great Southern Stand was constructed in preparation for the 1992 Cricket World Cup, to be played there in the summer of 1991/92. One consequence of this was that Waverley Park hosted all finals that were played in Melbourne, including (for the first and only time in its history) the grand final. The other was that Hawthorn's plans move its home games from Princes Park to Waverley Park were delayed by one year: Hawthorn had played five home games at Waverley Park and six at Princes Park in 1990 as part of transitional arrangements for a permanent move in 1991, but the AFL reneged on the deal when it became clear that the ground was needed for blockbuster games throughout the year; as a compromise, Hawthorn again played five home games at Waverley Park and six at Princes Park during 1991, and then moved permanently to Waverley Park in 1992.[1]
  • By the end of the year, Hawthorn captain Michael Tuck retired from the game, having played a then-record 426 VFL/AFL matches (including 7 premierships from 11 grand finals). The record stood until passed by Brent Harvey (North Melbourne) in 2016.

See also

References

  1. Daryl Timms (2 July 1990). "Feathers fly". The Sun News-Pictorial. Melbourne, VIC. p. 88.

Bibliography

  • Rodgers, Stephen (1992). Every Game Ever Played: VFL/AFL Results 1897-1991 (3rd ed.). Australia: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-90526-7. 
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