Are the studies relevant?
I don't think you're going to get a meaningful answer to your question from a survey of studies - there are simply too many confounders that they don't control for. Here are some of the most important:
Proprioception Not all shoes are equal. At one end you have true "barefoot" shoes with minimal midsoles and very high proprioception. At the other end many approach and walking shoes have thick soles that give little ground feel. Proprioception plays a huge role in the prevention of ankle injury, as good ground feel gives the brain the timely feedback it needs to take the action required to avoid injury.
Flexibility of the sole Let's say you stand on a hidden rock with the potential to turn your ankle. In a minimal shoe, the brain quickly knows there's an issue as we've seen, and because the sole is flexible it can wrap your foot around the obstacle to help prevent injury. Try it for yourself - it's striking how an unencumbered foot can adapt to the terrain. With a thick and rigid sole the brain only knows that there's a problem when the ankle begins to turn, and because there's no scope for altering the shape of the foot it has far fewer options for saving the situation. At a certain angle footwear with a rigid sole passes the point of no return and "capsizes", ripping your ankle. This is much less of an issue with a flexible sole.
Stack height This is the distance between the ground and the sole of your foot. The higher the stack height, the greater the leverage when your ankle begins to turn and the greater the potential for injury.
Heel to toe drop The lower the drop, the more naturally your power train can function and respond to threats underfoot.
Weight The weight of the shoe or boot has a significant impact on agility and the ability to recover from a threat, as does the weight of the person and the load carried.
Personal conditioning and transitioning Most of us spend our lives in padded footwear with a high drop. Changing to more minimal footwear requires careful and sensible transitioning. This may well be the reason for your sore ankles when wearing approach shoes. If a couch potato suddenly did a 10k run they would have sore muscles too. You need to build up over weeks or months depending on age and condition, and you may also need to consciously adjust your gait if you are a strong heel-striker. If you have specific issues with foot and ankle health you many need a well-designed exercise programme to rebuild a normal healthy gait. Podiatrists who specialise in rehab claim they can resolve a wide range of conditions, but most of the profession still focuses on orthotics.
Design and usage of the boot's ankle support As a general rule, the greater the ankle support, the less comfortable the boot will be to walk in. For example ski boots give maximum ankle protection but you walk like a duck. Designs and support vary greatly, but in practice most walkers I see have the ankles quite loosely laced for comfort at the expense of support. So the support offered on a lab treadmill is one thing, but the support offered when the boot is used in the field is quite another.
All of these variables have an enormous impact on the risk of ankle injury, but I'm not aware of any study that even begins to address them comprehensively. The research is nowhere close to providing a meaningful answer.
So how can you make an informed decision?
The bottom line is that every hiker has to make a personal choice.
What we can say with confidence is that lightweight footwear is a perfectly responsible option provided you transition properly, and we don't need to go to the labs to tell us this. Many thousands of hikers have covered many millions of miles in lightweight trail shoes, and I'm not aware of any credible evidence that this has led to a spate of ankle injuries. This is a huge sample of real people walking in real conditions, and trumps any artificial lab study, I would suggest. Anyone who claims that lightweight footwear is inherently dangerous is simply ill-informed.
The old-guard accused the early lightweight hikers of being irresponsible, but now 10lb packs are pretty much mainstream. There are no lab studies that prove this is safe - just a huge amount of practical experience that it works for anyone who develops the requisite attitudes and skill-set. It's the same with lightweight footwear.
For any hike there is a wide range of footwear that could do the job, each with it's own pros and cons. We all head out for different reasons and through a great variety of terrain. We all have different priorities and notions of comfort. So we all have to figure out what works for us through trial and error.
Personally I prioritise light weight and agility: I choose the most minimal footwear I can possible get away with. I'm happy to put up with damp feet and the occasional bang on the ankle in return, and I was happy to put in the effort to transition properly. I came to this decision through years of experimentation and have found something that works very well for me. But it may not work for you. I know many others who wouldn't dream of walking the same terrain without a shanked leather walking boot.
Both are perfectly valid choices. My only aim in promoting lightweight footwear on this site is to open people's minds to alternatives they may not have considered. Though I will say that the more committed and experienced the walker and the more ambitious the project, the more likely it is that they will choose a lightweight option. Long-distance thru-hikers in traditional boots are a vanishing species, in the same way that few people nowadays hike the AT or the PCT with 40lb base-weights.