**Web developers!**

Having a PhD in applied mathematics and having struggled quite a lot just last year in order to find my first job outside of the academia (guess what), I felt somehow compelled to post this answer. :)

Let me add some context and background to back it up. First of all, what follows is purely based on personal experience. However, I believe that having spent 10 years in the "math environment", hunted for a job in the industry, and eventually found one, should give enough credit to what I'll say.

**Notes:**

I have been doing research/working in Japan for the past 4 years, but I think this should not be a big discriminant.

I will focus on the private sector, that is, I will not consider research centers etc. that are also an obvious career possibility. I also won't consider the education sector (public or private) in general.

Anyway, what I realized during my job-hunting quest as a mathematician is that the majority of jobs for what you will be actually considered (in my case meaning that I had at least one interview) comes from the following type of industries:

- IT;
- Insurance;
- Finance;
- Pharmaceutical;
- Consulting.

I would say that more or less that's it. In most cases though, whatever the type of industry, most of the employers will be interested in two things when looking at a mathematician: programming and problem solving (mindset) skills.

The only area in which I honestly have the feeling that some serious mathematics is actually employed on a regular basis is finance (you can google for "quant jobs" and find tons of information). I had a few quant interviews and I was actually asked quite high-level purely mathematical questions. Those times only. Even in the quant case though, often programming skills are essential... At this point you should be able to start seeing where my original answer is coming from.

In the end, I have started working in a Fintech company, where eventually I might join a quantitative team and at least have the feeling of doing a job that is related to my background. For now, I am working as a web developer doing web applications. The level of mathematics I use is zero, and math comes into play only in the sense that it helps when it comes to logical thinking (that is obviously at the core of programming). So although there is an obvious pinch of irony in my first answer, there is at the same time a little bit of disappointment. The truth is that the business world and mathematics are still quite far from each other, despite what some will say. At least in the majority of cases.

Even among friends or former colleagues, if I think about people that now work in the industry they all belong to one of the above categories (many of them not doing or using any math at all). So I guess it is quite true in the end, you indeed find math majors in a variety of fields. It is how you get there to be tricky.

**Off topic:** The above was just my personal experience to give a small insight of what math majors do after graduation.
However, I would like to add that what I have learned, in the end, is that the most helpful thing a math major could do to himself/herself is to understand in advance what he/she wants to do next and work his/her math in that direction.

I never really given too much thought to that and when I decided to drop research I realized the hard way that finding a job was much more difficult than I expected. Definitely having a PhD and research experience was a double edged sword for many reasons, but this is another story.

Anyway, I would boil it all down to this:

If you love math as a subject and that's what you want to do, I
hardly see any career other than the standard academic one.

If you want to find a regular job in a company, it definitely helps to
improve coding skills focusing on maybe numerical analysis and/or
applied mathematics. And be prepared not to see any math at all
again.

When it comes to money, maybe the most financially rewarding career
for a mathematician is still in the financial field working as a
quant. They are notoriously tough jobs to get, but knowing in
advance that that's your goal might be an advantage so that you can
for example drop that algebraic topology class and attend stochastic
calculus instead.

12The question seems immediately motivated by and related to OP's work as a mathematics educator. The question is close to asking 'What could/should I answer to the question "So what do math majors do after graduation?", which I get asked by students and their parents.' Except that the question as actually asked is less opinion based than this, which is an advantage. I would tend to consider this in scope. – quid – 2016-04-10T17:43:18.150

2I know math majors that double majored or minored in computer science and went on to code just like those who only studied CS and not math. – Mehrdad – 2016-04-10T22:36:17.227

4There's a huge demand for people who know both statistics and programming. So maybe a related question is "what do math majors who don't like statistics do?" – Aeryk – 2016-04-11T00:19:16.750

2A math degree is considered to be difficult to get, even if it's not more difficult for people who are fascinated by mathematics enough to get such a degree. That being the case, having a math degree is generally seen as a good thing for many technical fields, especially those that do not require more specific training or licensing. It is also an ideal foundation for a large number of graduate degrees. – Todd Wilcox – 2016-04-11T01:09:14.837

For me, tech. They should

reallyget good at programming, no matter what they want to do... – djechlin – 2016-04-11T03:39:53.2134IME the usual destination is the finance and insurance industries. There's a lot of training but it's extraordinarily well-paid. – pjc50 – 2016-04-11T10:21:57.550

Short answer: whatever we want. – QED – 2016-04-11T19:53:21.243

Personal view : As math majors we learn to break down extremely complex logical problems into manageable pieces that can be used to further extend and explore the system. This knowledge of •how to learn• has given me the upper hand when it comes to getting all the work I have as a professional programmer. – typewriter – 2016-04-11T21:57:35.780

A degree in Mathematics may look impressive, but it's not going to get you a job without being paired with concrete, marketable skills (unless you want to teach). I learned that the hard way. Pick a good minor that works well with math, like statistics or computer science. A year or two in, maybe you'll even find out that you like your minor better than your major and you can switch the two without much extra effort. – None – 2016-04-11T01:33:47.113

This remark by Jonathan Chang is not universally true. I got a great job within days of my graduation with a BS in math, and my minor was French. Math is definitely a concrete, marketable skill. (minimal modification by quid to integrate it in the cmnt thread) – Kathy – 2016-04-11T14:17:15.997

Continuing on the subject raise by Jonathan Chang, I earned a B.S. in pure Mathematics (no actuarial science, no statistics) and had a job a week after graduation - I worked that job for nine years and still work in the field. I wouldn't say that the degree is what got me the job, but it certainly wasn't any marketable skills, since I had virtually none in the field at that time. (minimal modification by quid to integrate it in the cmnt thread) – Todd Wilcox – 2016-04-11T18:35:16.480