Which of these is more effective: having a silent period, or speaking from day one?

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Nowadays, people usually learn languages in one of two ways: silent learning or speaking the new language from day one. They have their pros and cons but differ from each other greatly.

A silent period is when students don't speak much of the language when they start and the second option is the complete opposite, trying to speak the new language as soon they start. My question is: Which option is more effective?

I am not asking for opinions here but more for studies that prove your point, with some personal experience if needed in your answer.

Anthony Pham

Posted 2016-04-05T17:59:53.633

Reputation: 3 777

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The question assumes that there are only two options that are complete opposites. Is this an example of a false dichotomy?

Christophe Strobbe 2016-08-10T16:05:38.867

@ChristopheStrobbe If it is, what is the other option? This is more of something like what is better a or b where a is the opposite of b. I chose those two on purpose, not the false fact that only they exist.Anthony Pham 2016-08-10T16:09:31.517

What I see is a scala or range, with speaking from day one at one end, and speaking "later" at the other end, which is open. Speaking from day one is not very different from speaking from day two, but are they opposites? Speaking from day two is not very different from speaking from day three, but they aren't opposites. And so on. So how long is a silent period before it counts as a "silent period"? You get into the Sorites paradox.

Christophe Strobbe 2016-08-10T16:19:31.807

1@ChristopheStrobbe You are taking this a little far. The question starts with a point that which method is better when you start learning the language not after you start. Anyways, the question indirectly assumes you stay with a method and don't change. You don't start a language past day one; you start something on day one. If you want to know how long a silent period is, Google it. If you want to continue this conversation, please do so in chat and ping me. This conversation seems to be getting a little long hereAnthony Pham 2016-08-10T16:45:21.910

(1) I assume you know perfectly well that the duration of the silent period is not a fixed number of hours of days of instruction (with "fixed" meaning: the same for all learners of a specific L2). However, some other people on LL SE might not know, so it would be worth adding to your question. (2) It is OK to change your method when you find a better one. Nobody should assume the contrary.Christophe Strobbe 2016-08-10T17:03:03.030

@ChristopheStrobbe I said to use chat. This is getting way too long. Oh for the second one, let yourself assume that the question is comparing two different types of people, one who uses the silent period and those who start talking.Anthony Pham 2016-08-10T17:05:08.867

I'm really pleased to see answers here confirming what I thought--that it's more effective in every sense to have a silent period.SAH 2017-02-19T13:56:35.067

Thanks for the question. It is interesting that the advice is the opposite of the common advice ("speak from the day one") from popular polyglot blogs like "Fluent in 3 months". Thank you for disabusing me from that myth.Peter Masiar 2018-01-02T19:28:04.883

During the silent period, do people read and/or write?Andrew Grimm 2016-04-08T11:05:17.530

Answers

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"The Five Principles of Effective Second Language Acquisition" by Transparent Language states that students who have a silent period in which they absorb vocabulary and observe the language are much more effective when speaking and writing.

Forcing language learners to rush into sentence formation can interfere with vocabulary learning during the beginning stages of acquiring a new language. Instead, learners should be given time to absorb the meanings of individual words at their own pace before being required to use them in a larger context. Language learners who take that time are far more likely to use the words correctly when they do choose to form sentences.

James Monger

Posted 2016-04-05T17:59:53.633

Reputation: 416

See also Stephen Krashen's theory of comprehensible input and (or versus) Merrill Swain's (much less influential) comprehensible output.

Christophe Strobbe 2016-08-10T16:09:01.600

1Indeed, little children first learning a language observe quite a bit before they form sentences on par with adults.brandaemon 2016-04-06T08:28:11.540

1I've never thought about that before @brandaemon. I wonder if that has anything to do with your first language being "easier" to pick up than subsequent languages...James Monger 2016-04-06T11:05:42.050

I think there's a lot we can learn about learning second languages by considering how almost everyone learns their first language.brandaemon 2016-04-06T16:03:44.583

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The Canadian linguist Patsy Lightbown published several articles about the following type of experiment:

  • One group of English language learners in the French-speaking part of Canada started learning English at the age of 8 (grade 3) with a method based exclusively on listening and reading. They received native-speaker input by reading texts and listening to tape recordings. This is known as a comprehension-based approach, but since there is not or practice or interaction, it also is an example of a (prolonged) silent period. (In research terms, this was the "experimental group".)
  • Another group of learners of the same age and with the same background started learning English using a regular, aural-oral approach. (In research terms, this was the "comparison group".)

Two years later, in grade 5, both groups were tested. The tests revealed that the learners in the comprehension-based program had learned English as well as learners in the traditional group; in some cases they even performed better. This was not only the case for comprehension-based skills (reading, listening) but also for their speaking skills, even though they had never practiced speaking in class!

However, when both groups were tested again in grade 8, the learners using the comprehension-based approach performed less well than the regular group. So, apparently, a silent period can be effective in the beginning but not in the long run.

See:

  • Lightbown, Patsy; Spada, Nina: How Languages Are Learned. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, 1999: page 128-129.
  • Lightbown, Patsy; Halter, Randall; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise: "Comprehension-Based Learning: The Limits of ‘Do It Yourself’", Canadian Modern Language Review 58 (2002): 427-64. (See the abstract.)

Christophe Strobbe

Posted 2016-04-05T17:59:53.633

Reputation: 8 697

The above description doesn't make it clear whether the listening-only continued. When you get to the point of being able to use the language some, you need to begin doing so. Comprehensible input is more effective when it is also comprehensible output.WGroleau 2017-01-12T15:52:16.807

@WGroleau The listening-only continued until (at least) grade 8, as explained in the last paragraph above the references.Christophe Strobbe 2017-01-12T16:16:24.377

It said they were tested again in grade eight but wasn't clear that the listening only continued after the grade five test. So the study reinforces my opinion based on observation of other approaches. Charles Curran claimed that with Community Language Learning, students were conversing in more than one language in less than a year, with a method that allows them to speak whenever they feel like it. Some TPRS teachers claim conversational ability is achieved in a year, even for English speakers learning Chinese.WGroleau 2017-01-12T17:16:47.683

@WGroleau That's all very nice, but nothing in my answer says that CLL and TPRS don't work.Christophe Strobbe 2017-01-12T17:30:54.697

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I would say it somehow depends on the correlation between L1 (native language) and L2 (second language). The further the L2 is from the L1, the more difficult it will be for the learner to speak it properly. Correct pronunciation must be put into place with a teacher correcting and advising. The more we wait the more difficult it is to get rid of mispronunciations. The primary use of a language is (should be) to communicate with other people, communication is a two way process ; even if we stumble for words at the beginning and have to use as much corporal language as we use words, it is a real pleasure for the budding speaker to see they have made themselves understood.

Laure

Posted 2016-04-05T17:59:53.633

Reputation: 1 054

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Your goal, which you didn’t state, has some bearing on what is the more effective way to reach that goal.  I’m partial to listening for a while, but eventually one has to start using the language.

But there’s the Benny Lewis “speak from day one” approach, which I would think gets one communicating sooner, but not necessarily with good grammar, vocabulary, or pronunciation.  (And if you read much of Lewis, it becomes apparent that “day one” isn’t really day one—he learns some in advance from phrase books.

Another interesting thing about methods is expressed in one of my favorite quotes:

“In the field of language teaching, Method A is the logical
contradiction of Method B: if the assumptions from which A claims to be derived are correct, then B cannot work, and vice versa.  Yet one colleague is getting excellent results with A and another is getting comparable results with B.  How is this possible?” — Earl W. Stevick

I can’t easily cite the studies I’ve read, but things I’ve heard or witnessed are in one of my comments on another answer. I think one answer to Stevick’s rhetorical question is that people are different.  One method might do wonders for a third of the people; another do wonders for another third.  And the salesmen/evangelists tell you all about their model third, not mentioning the ones that are disappointed.

In my own experience, after years of getting top grades in Spanish, I went to Guadalajara and found that I could not communicate.  Some will gloat that this proves only comprehensible input works.  But I think that all that grammar and vocabulary made all the input comprehensible, allowing me to speak well within two weeks.

WGroleau

Posted 2016-04-05T17:59:53.633

Reputation: 143

Thanks for the answer. Note, however, that the question asks primarily for studies on the effectiveness of these methods.Christophe Strobbe 2017-01-12T17:07:22.243

Studies and experience. Edited for the latter.WGroleau 2017-01-12T17:26:30.433