There is a very interesting fact about »leiden«, »leid«, »Leid«, »leidlich«, »leider«, »erleiden«, »Beileid«, »beleidigen«, »Leidenschaft« and similar words: They do not derive from the same root. There are two distinct etymological roots for this words.
root 1: leid
Ich bin es leid, dir jeden Tag die Wäsche zu waschen.
I am weary/tired from washing your laundry every day.
In swiss dialects this word still is used as adjective, but in standard German you use it only as a predicative expression (i.e. as part of a sentences predicate) as shown in the example above.
This word derives from the Old High German adjective »leid« which means disgusting, unpleasant or distressing. The english verb »to loathe« (Britons loathe immigration in principle) and the adjective »loath« (I'm loath to cheat on a test) both derive from the same root.
Words, that come from this root are:
Das Leid (noun)
Er tat mir kein Leid an.
He did me no harm.
Die hohe Arbeitslosigkeit ist ein leidiges Thema.
High unemployment is a vexed issue.
Damit wirst du ihn aber beleidigen.
So you're going to insult him.
Die Trauergäste sprachen der Witwe ihr Beileid aus.
The mourners offered their condolences to the widow.
Seine ständigen Sticheleien verleiden mir den Spaß an der Party.
His constant taunts spoil my fun at a party.
Dieses Hemd ist mir leider zu groß.
Unfortunately, this shirt is too big for me.
root 2: leiden
Die Kinder leiden Schmerzen. Maria kann Walter gut leiden.
The children suffer from pain. Maria likes Walter.
This verb originally means in modern German: to endure or to bear. So a more verbatim (but less English) translation of the example sentences would be:
The children endure pain. Maria can endure Walter very well.
But even German native speakers don't have endure or bear in their mind when they use this word. They also think in terms of like or suffer, depending on the context.
But I said »in modern German«. Endure/bear was not the original meaning. »Leiden« meant »to travel« (to walk, ride, drive), but the focus of this meaning was not on the transportation, or on moving from A to B, but on the long, boring and sometimes painful time you spend for traveling.
In Old High German this word is »lidan« or »irlidan«. Later can be translated as »erleiden« in modern German, but also as »erfahren« which has a different etymological root, but almost the same meaning. And in »erfahren« you have »fahren«, which is »to travel« in english. Also the noun »Erfahrung« (experience) has this travel in it.
This travel more often was a metaphoric travel (the travel through a certain period of time, i.e. a phase of happiness or a phase of sorrow) than a travel through space. And there is even a connection to the verb »leiten« (to lead) which also derives from the same root.
So, »leiden« was not necessarily a word with negative connotation, but its meaning was influenced by the other word, »leid«, and so »leiden« was infected by the negative aspects of »leid«.
But still there are usages for leiden with a positive connotation, as in the sentence »Maria kann Walter gut leiden«. And from this positive meaning was built another word:
This word was invented in 17th century to have a German replacement for the french word »passion« (which has a latin root and exists in English too; see blow).
Words that derive from »leiden« are:
But also the word »passion« came into German Vocabulary:
Die Matthäus-Passion von Johann Sebastian Bach
St Matthew Passion from Johann Sebastian Bach
In Christianity, the Passion is the final period in the life of Jesus Christ leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary. So, it is a time of suffering and enduration.
But you find »Passion« and the adjective »passioniert« also as Synonyms for »Leidenschaft« and »leidenschaftlich«:
Ernst ist ein passionierter Schachspieler. = Ernst ist ein leidenschaftlicher Schachspieler.
Ernst is a passionate chess player.
The word »Passion« comes from the latin noun
lat. passio = suffering, disease
which itself is a derivation from the verb
lat. patior = to endure, to suffer, to bear, to tolerate
And there are a lot of German and English words, that derive from this root:
The english noun »patience« (Geduld in German) means to be »patient« (adjective) (able to remain calm and not become annoyed), and the German »Patient« (patient in english) is a person who has to be patient to be cured, becasue he/she is suffering from a sickness.
So, the english word »passion« originally also has the meaning »to endure something« or »to be patient on something«, as well as the German »Leidenschaft«.