There are several different thats, and the rules vary depending on which you're using.
In your example, that is a ‘complementizer’: it marks the clause which follows as a constituent of the main sentence in which it is embedded. Broadly, this that may be omitted when the complementized clause is the object of the main verb and follows it directly; otherwise, it must be supplied so the reader knows how the complementized clause functions. Below, ∅ marks the omission of that.
You think ∅ we only notice those women. BUT NOT
∗ ∅ We only notice those women is what you think. AND NOT
∗ You think, and perhaps you're right, ∅ we only notice those women.
When that is used as a ‘relativizer’ (relative pronoun) it may be omitted if it acts as an object (direct or indirect) of the verb in the clause it heads, but not if it acts as the subject:
We only notice women ∅ fashion magazines feature. BUT NOT
∗ We only notice women ∅ are featured in fashion magazines.
(The foregoing rules are for formal or semi-formal written English; speech follows the Tolerance Maxim, that “Anything which should be understood may be omitted”.)
When that is used as a ‘demonstrative pronoun’ (“That's the woman we're featuring!”) or as a ‘determiner ’ (demonstrative adjective—“That woman is the one we're featuring”) it may not be omitted.
∗ signifies that the marked utterance is unacceptable