## "'Applying'/'If we apply'/'Given' those principles"

3

Applying those principles here, it is clear that the sections in question are unambiguous in their application and ...
www​.nycourts.gov/courts/.../knight.pdf

What is the sense of the above sentence, 1 or 2?

1. If we apply those principles here, it becomes clear that ...

2. Given those principles, the sections in question ...

Also, if "1" is the correct interpretation, can we replace "Applying" with "The application of"—i.e., "The application of those principles here makes clear that ..."?