"few" is used with a countable noun: "There are too few apples in the box". This is equivalent to "not enough apples".
"Water" is not countable, so you cannot say "too few water".
You could use "little": There is too little water in the glass". This is equivalent to "not enough"
Few is used with countable nouns. Since water cannot be counted in itself, "too few water" is wrong.
However, "too few glasses of water" is correct since the number of glasses can be counted. Needless to say, the meaning changes from the original intention.
Many native speakers use enough for both countable and uncountable nouns.
... not enough water.
... not enough volunteers.
But too few is used only with countable nouns.
... too few volunteers.
As others said, "too little" is more appropriate because you use "little" for uncountable nouns. An extra point, though: In my opinion, "too little" is a bit stronger than "not enough". For example, "not enough" could be slightly less than enough (say 70-90% as a ballpark), but "too little" (or "too few" where appropriate) may mean even less than that (the second glass in your image.)