"Carrie has arrived at the airport for two hours." - Is this sentence grammatically correct?

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I'm helping my friend with his English exercise related to the simple past & present perfect tenses:

Rewrite each of the following sentences in another way so that it means almost the same as the sentence printed before it.

Carrie arrived at the airport two hours ago.

=> Carrie has ______________________

At first, my friend wrote:

  1. Carrie has arrived at the airport for two hours.

I looked at it and just felt something wrong. It seems to me that the action 'arrive' happens only once, it is not a continuing action. So, I advised my friend to change it to:

  1. Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours.

Is my sentence correct and does it meet the requirement of the exercise?

doquan0

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 1 275

1It's grammatical. The action "arrive" is not progressive. But you can take "arrived" as the current state. It's like you are saying Carrie has been in the "arrived" state for two hours. – user178049 – 2016-11-07T09:16:34.293

4Please note that "Carrie arrived at the airport two hours ago" does not necessarily mean that she's still at the airport. She might have left since! Neither your own sentence, nor the ones in the answers, reflect that. – Mr Lister – 2016-11-07T13:06:03.457

24@user178049 Um, no. I know of no native speaker who would naturally use or even interpret Carrie has arrived at the airport for two hours to mean Carrie has been in the "arrived state" for two hours. – Alan Carmack – 2016-11-07T15:03:02.303

1Since it didn't take two hours to cross the threshold, nope. – Joshua – 2016-11-08T00:10:57.040

1Perhaps, in the British sense of the word, but it would be slang I believe and probably not the case at hand. – Shaun Wilson – 2016-11-08T08:13:01.533

3I'm not a native English speaker, but I'd understand that sentence as meaning "Carrie has arrived at the airport, and will remain there for two hours for before leaving" (i.e., Carrie has arrived at the airport for a two-hour stay), but I wouldn't be surprised if nobody else took that meaning. – muru – 2016-11-08T10:54:42.650

2@muru While not exactly standard, your interpretation is definitely valid – binaryfunt – 2016-11-08T18:24:49.983

1Note that the question explicitly requests almost the same meaning. The exercise is about changing form from simple past to present perfect. Of course those two mean different things. That's probably a point made in the material that preceded the exercise. – JdeBP – 2016-11-09T08:18:28.527

What is wrong with the sentence: Carrie has arrived at the airport two hours ago. – Rob – 2016-11-09T09:50:05.903

1Kalin's explanation is a valid one, but I thought I should warn you that it disagrees with the answer given by the Cambridge PET practice exam book. The original task is about providing the closest equivalent using no more than three words. In your example, the ending of the phrase has been omitted. Probably, I'm guessing here but I have used these books myself and helped students to pass the exam, the original PET exam sample had "Carrie _______ at the airport for two hours" – Mari-Lou A – 2016-11-09T09:55:01.410

1In that space the candidate has to provide between 1 and 3 words that fit into the sentence. Your question is different, and therefore you are right to choose the answer that you feel has helped you the most. – Mari-Lou A – 2016-11-09T09:57:45.943

1Ds@muru unfortunately, the sentence does not imply anything of the sort, without context, we can only guess what the situation might be. It could be that Carrie arrived on time but the flight has been delayed. It could be that Carrie misread the flight arrival time and just got there too early. It could be ANYTHING! :) – Mari-Lou A – 2016-11-09T10:07:42.410

Answers

3

Both your sentence and your friend's sentence have already diverted from the meaning of the original sentence.

The original sentence is "Carrie arrived at the airport two hours ago."

From that sentence, you cannot deduce whether Carrie is still in the airport or has already left the airport for the past two hours. The only information from that sentence is that "Carrie arrived at the airport two hours ago", she is at the airport two hours ago, but she may or may not be in the airport one hour ago. Both your sentence and your friend's sentence assume that Carrie is still in the airport, which cannot be deduce from the original sentence.

A more accurate rewrite of the sentence will be "Carrie reached the airport two hours ago" or "Carrie was at the airport two hours ago".

"Carrie has arrived at the airport for two hours" is not a correct wording of the English language.

"has arrived" is an instantaneous occurrence, whereas "for two hours" implies a continuous activity that takes place over an extended duration.

Carrie will "arrive at the airport" (instantly), but may be stuck in the custom/traffic "for two hours" (over extended duration). However, the concept of "arrived" and "being stuck in custom/traffic" are two difference occurrences.

Similarly, "Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours" is also not correct wording, as "has stayed" implies an even longer duration (eg. two days) than two hours.

Kalin

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 54

3Where are you getting that "has stayed" implies a duration of greater than 2 hours? I've never heard of such a thing. As a native American English speaker, it only indicates she has been at the airport for 2 hours to me, or that she was there for 2 hours at some point in the past. (Distinguishing would probably be a matter of context.) – jpmc26 – 2016-11-09T02:09:55.603

3I'm not a learner of english. I am a native speaker and I'm having trouble finding the equivalent statement for "Carrie has ______". Is the question flawed? – user64742 – 2016-11-09T05:31:47.923

1A point addressed in other answers but not here is the simple replacement of "has stayed" with "has been". – JdeBP – 2016-11-09T08:04:50.243

This does not even answer the question of "Carrie has_________." And has stayed is grammatical. – Alan Carmack – 2016-11-09T15:07:23.830

47

It's grammatical, but it doesn't make much sense, a bit like Noam Chomsky's famous sentence, "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously."

To arrive is something that happens instantaneously, not over a period of time: to arrive at the airport means to change your state from "not at the airport" to "at the airport". It doesn't take two hours to do that. It might take two hours to travel to the airport, but that's not arriving: it's travelling.

If Carrie arrived at the airport two hours ago and hasn't left then she has been at the airport for two hours. Being at a place, unlike arriving there, is something that can happen over a period of time.

"Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours" is also correct but it carries a subtly different connotation. "Has been" is a simple statement that her location for that time was the airport. "To be" is the simplest verb you can use here and, if a speaker uses a more complicated word, you might think they're giving a more complicated message. For example, "Carrie has stayed" very slightly emphasises the fact that she didn't leave. Of course, the fact that "she has been there" there the whole time already implies that she didn't leave, but using a word like "stay" gives just a tiny bit more weight to that idea.

For completeness, just like almost any phrase, there are situations in which "Carrie has been arriving at the airport for two hours" could make sense. For example, if she is stuck in traffic and keeps texting you "I'm arriving now", you might say to your friend "She's been arriving for two hours." But the implication here is that, because arriving is an instantaneous action, you don't accept that she has really arrived. Indeed, in written English you might put scare quotes around "arrived" ("She's been 'arriving' for two hours") to indicate that your use of that word is ironic or disbelieving.

David Richerby

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 7 931

7Does it actually sound grammatical to you? Because it certainly doesn't to me, but I might be wrong. – DRF – 2016-11-07T12:59:59.050

18I suspect linguists could get into a really knock-down drag-out argument over whether verbs of instantaneous events not being usable with prepositional phrases expressing duration qualifies as a grammar rule. From the descriptively purist perspective, it belongs in the undifferentiated bin of "things native speakers would never say" along with "hours airport Carrie at arrived ago the two". From the "trying to explain why native speakers would never say that" perspective, it's probably useful to hold on to some syntax/semantics distinction. – zwol – 2016-11-07T13:16:05.887

2@DRF "Carrie has danced at the airport for two hours" is indisputably grammatical. Why would changing one intransitive verb for another make the sentence suddenly ungrammatical? – David Richerby – 2016-11-07T13:25:37.117

3That is true. And I think @zwol has hit the nail on the head. I suppose I am bad at telling whether something is strictly ungrammatical or just sounds really bad since my knowledge of any prescriptive (or descriptive to be honest) grammar is sorely lacking. The strange thing (to me anyhow) is that Chomsky's sentence sounds fine if nonsensical. One other tricky question though. What's up with "She has been arriving at the airport for two hours." That sounds perfectly fine to me even though arrive should be instantaneous. – DRF – 2016-11-07T13:33:16.497

6Reading the sentence I immediately visualised a Lovecraftian scenario in which Carrie is caught in some kind of temporal groundhog stasis and is reliving the instant of her arrival at the airport for a duration of two hours. The sentence is grammatical, it’s just horrifying. At least it stopped now. Imagine the terror if the wording had been “has been arriving”. – Konrad Rudolph – 2016-11-07T14:24:57.577

9@DRF: The key is to realise that grammar and semantics are two different things. The sentence sounds nonsensical because it is nonsensical, but that doesn't make it ungrammatical. – Lightness Races in Orbit – 2016-11-07T15:34:26.873

1@KonradRudolph: Given the state of air travel in some cases, I could easily imagine a scenario in which the arrival process takes two hours or longer. Perhaps there's a significant arrival queue in a customs border and she actually has "been arriving" for two hours. Technically she "arrived" almost instantaneously and has been "processing" (or any number of other descriptions) since, but if the entire process is known as "arrival" in a contextual sense then that's perfectly acceptable. Though at this point we've left grammar and moved into contextual semantics. The grammar seems fine. – David – 2016-11-07T17:47:03.573

2"Arriving for two hours" sounds to me like getting stuck in a loading screen in a video game. – CaffeineConnoisseur – 2016-11-08T00:38:58.793

if you could highlight the answer in bold, then lazy users from HNQ would stop upvoting the easy answers. – Mari-Lou A – 2016-11-08T08:57:52.280

@Mari-LouA Done but my answer has almost twice as many votes as the two short answers combined so I'm not sure there was really a problem. – David Richerby – 2016-11-08T09:05:53.997

False Friend for German native speakers? German "vor" (homophone with "for") means "ago"... Grammatically correct, but nonsense. – rexkogitans – 2016-11-08T10:36:27.323

All the justifications for "has been arriving" seem contrived to me, and could be expressed more clearly another way. I do not think it will help those learning English to bring them up here. – sdenham – 2016-11-08T13:38:45.653

@LightnessRacesinOrbit I learned (descriptive) theory of grammar from people who would insist that grammar vs semantics is not a meaningful distinction - partially because they were reacting against Chomsky's theories, but partially because you really can tie yourself into knots if you don't allow the meanings of words, and even phrases, to influence whether the sentence as a whole is seen to be "grammatical". Unfortunately I can't recall any good examples - the case that this question about isn't especially troublesome. – zwol – 2016-11-08T15:46:46.873

1@zwol How do these people deal with the fact that "I go the house" is obviously ungrammatical but has clear semantics, whereas "colourless green ideas sleep furiously" appears to me to be completely grammatical but has no clear semantics? Or are they just saying that you can't consider grammaticality without also considering semantics? – David Richerby – 2016-11-08T15:57:59.193

2@DavidRicherby The main philosophical point they want to make is, I think, that semantics and grammar are intertwined to the point where you can't consider either of them without considering the other; and secondarily that the actual mechanism by which the brain processes language does not make sharp distinctions between the two. They would want you to think about "I go the house" and "colorless green ideas sleep furiously" as different only in how easy it is for a fluent speaker to "repair" them to a probably-intended meaning; not as falling into qualitatively different bins. – zwol – 2016-11-08T16:46:00.150

Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Perfectly logical! It means "Uninteresting environmental schemes not currently being acted upon energetically arouse popular fury." It is a reference to anthropogenic global warming and the political impasse we face in our country over what to do... – Paul Chernoch – 2016-11-08T20:09:47.897

16

Carrie has arrived at the airport for two hours.

This sentence does not work in English. To arrive is an action that is conceived of as taking place at once, not over time. So using a duration (for two hours) with 'has arrived' is not appropriate.

You can make a better sentence by using to arrive in the progressive, since one of the characteristics of the progressive is to show duration:

Carrie has been arriving at the airport for two hours.

Now, as for your sentence

Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours.

This sentence is grammatical. But taken in isolation we don't know what it is supposed to mean. For example, stay can mean both remain and live as a guest. Using has remained is idiomatic.

But the sentence that "best matches" the given sentence in meaning is

Carrie has been at the airport for two hours.

This assumes, of course, that the original sentence means that Carrie is still at the airport--which it does not have to, but analyzing sentences in isolation is often unproductive. To be is often used in the present perfect to describe a situation that has duration.

Alan Carmack

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 11 630

1"Has remained" sounds unnecessarily formal, to me. "Has stayed" is fine -- nobody's going to think it means that she's "lived there as a guest" for only two hours, so people are going to assume you mean "has remained". – David Richerby – 2016-11-08T08:26:07.693

@DavidRicherby - I disagree. "Has stayed" is incredibly awkward and seems to imply she's been vacationing there. If we know why she's there, we could say she waited or had been waiting at the airport. Remained is a nice alternative to show she was there without implying vacation. – bubbleking – 2016-11-13T15:00:58.293

@bubbleking Stay has multiple meanings, the simplest of which is "continuously occupy a place". I find it hard to believe that anybody would really confuse "I stayed in the airport for two hours" as meaning "I took the world's shortest ever vacation in a really boring place." Just like people can distinguish the multiple meanings of "saw" in "I am a bird-watcher: I saw an eagle" versus "I am a carpenter: I saw wood." – David Richerby – 2016-11-13T15:11:34.867

@DavidRicherby - I didn't mean to stress so much that anyone would actually think it was a vacation, so much as I wanted to stress that "Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours" is so awkward that no one would ever say it, and that perhaps remained is slightly less awkward, though still not favorable (though it has the advantage of concluding more naturally with something like "has remained at the airport all this time"). [cont...] – bubbleking – 2016-11-13T17:59:46.393

@DavidRicherby - Because of the absurdity of staying or vacationing at an airport for two hours without reason, you would always include the reason or context, like "Carrie has stayed at the airport the entire time we've been at lunch," or even change it to "Carrie has waited at the airport for 2 hours (for her friend to arrive, e.g.)." If we're not going to be offering reason or context, the "has been at the airport" option is the only one that doesn't sound awkward. Between the stayed and remained options, I'd say remained would have a better chance of sounding like a native speaker. – bubbleking – 2016-11-13T18:04:08.137

@bubbleking The phrase "Carrie has stayed at the airport for two hours" is not remotely awkward in British English. So that's 60+ million people who would happily say it. – David Richerby – 2016-11-13T18:19:09.897

@DavidRicherby - I was actually going to ask if you were British or not, as I suspected it might have a better ring to it in Britain, but I was too lazy to tack on another continuation comment. ;) – bubbleking – 2016-11-13T19:27:06.330

14

I would use the present perfect verb (the point of the exercise being use of the present perfect) "has been"

Carrie has been at the airport for two hours.

John Burger

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 2 423

14Would you explain why? – toogley – 2016-11-07T14:08:15.547

1The only tense in this sentence is the present tense has. The verb form been is untensed in this example. – snailplane – 2016-11-08T12:18:29.850

10

If you want to keep most of the words from the original sentence, I would use:

Carrie has been at the airport ever since she arrived two hours ago.

The original sentence's focus is on the arrival at the airport, and this is preserved in this version.

jfren484

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 304

4

The syntax is valid but the semantics is not.

see https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/29504/syntactically-correct-semantically-incorrect-sentence

Any native speaker would conclude that the person making the statement was a non-native. This is because "for..." implies a duration, and arrival is normally considered associated with an instant. That said, most of us could figure out what was intended.

I would guess that the error was made by a French speaker. In French the words "since (instant)" and "for (duration)" are the same, "depuis". Perhaps it is the same in other languages.

Note that you also cannot say "since two hours" because "two hours" is a duration. You could say "since two hours ago" or "since two o'clock", because those options refer to instants in time rather than durations.

mt_

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 41

3

To me, the fact that the exercise is an "English exercise related to the simple past & present perfect tenses" would lead me to believe that:

Carrie has.... is a prompt to write in the present tense.

Therefore the aswer would simply be:

Carrie has arrived at the airport.

As this is the present tense equivalent of the first statement.

Edit: John Burgers answer is actually what they are looking for:

Carrie has been at the airport for two hours.

My own sentance was probably not similar enough although I would argue if I had been marked down "almost the same as" could apply to mine too!

pob

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 31

1

Carrie has been at the airport since she arrived 2 hours ago.

Carrie has been at the airport for 2 hours after she arrived.

Carrie has been at the airport after she arrived 2 hours ago.

nikolay

Posted 2016-11-07T09:09:56.990

Reputation: 119

Please don't just give example sentences: you need to explain why they answer the question. In this case, I don't think your second and third suggestions are very good. The second one feels clumsy because she couldn't have been at the airport before she arrived there. The third one has the problem that "has been at the airport" doesn't suggest continuity and doesn't say that she's still there now, and "after" suggests that you're talking about two separate events. That suggests that Carrie arrived, left, returned and maybe left again, all in the course of two hours. – David Richerby – 2016-11-13T15:16:01.817